# Comprehensive Evaluation of a Pumped Storage Operation Effect Considering Multidimensional Benefits of a New Power System

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

_{2}emissions and constructed the operation evaluation indexes of pumped storage energy in the dimension of low carbon. Based on the method of quantifying the value of asset investment saved by pumped storage energy proposed in reference [19], the calculation method of the indicator of “replacing thermal power capacity” was proposed, and together with the indicator of “saving on power generation cost”, the operation evaluation indexes in the dimension of the economy were constructed. Based on the value quantification method of pumped storage to improve flexible regulation capacity proposed in reference [19], the calculation methods of the “available frequency regulation capacity” and “available reactive energy” indicators were proposed to form the evaluation indicators of the flexibility dimension. Based on the value quantification method of pumped storage for improving system resilience and reducing the power outage losses proposed in reference [19], the “available rotational inertia” and “expected energy storage capacity” were proposed, forming the evaluation indicators of the reliability dimension. On the basis of the above research, this paper established a comprehensive evaluation index system of pumped storage operation effect by selecting key operation indexes based on the four benefit dimensions of economy, low carbon, flexibility, and reliability, which need to be considered for the operation of a new power system. Individual indicators were scored based on the actual performance of the commissioned and soon-to-be-commissioned pumped storage power stations. Compared with references [17,18], the indicator system proposed in this paper is more comprehensive and can reflect the operational benefits of pumped storage from the overall system level. Compared with reference [19], the classification of the index system proposed in this paper is more compatible with the construction and operation objectives of China’s new power system. Finally, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) introduced in reference [20,21] was utilized to conduct pairwise comparisons of the importance of indicators at each level, resulting in the derivation of weights for each indicator and the achievement of a comprehensive evaluation. It can make an effective horizontal comparison of the operation effect of pumped storage power stations with different technical parameters, with a view to providing a reference for the reasonable selection and planning of pumped storage power stations and promoting the high-quality development of the industry.

## 2. Evaluation Index System Based on Multidimensional Benefits

## 3. Quantification Method of the Operation Effect Evaluation Index

#### 3.1. Economy Dimension Indicators

#### 3.2. Low-Carbon Dimension Indicators

_{2}) by comparing the carbon dioxide produced by the system’s power generation fuel consumption with and without pumped storage.

_{2}emissions for time period t on day d in scenario s, t; ${\alpha}_{g}^{\mathrm{S}}$ denotes single start-up CO

_{2}emissions for thermal unit g, t; and ${\alpha}_{g}^{\mathrm{G}}\left({P}_{g,d,t,s}^{\mathrm{G}}\right)$ denotes thermal unit g’s CO

_{2}emission factor, t/MWh, which is a function related to the active output of the unit.

#### 3.3. Flexibility Dimension Indicators

#### 3.4. Reliability Dimension Indicators

## 4. Comprehensive Evaluation Methodology for Pumped Storage Operational Benefit

_{ij}. ${w}_{i}^{A}$ denotes the single weight of indicator B

_{i}, which is also its composite weight. ${w}_{j}^{{B}_{i}}$ denotes the single weight of indicator C

_{ij}.

## 5. Case Analysis

## 6. Discussion

_{2}per year. Ni et al. have also analyzed the role of pumped storage in promoting new energy and carbon emission reduction [13]. Taking the performance of a 1200 MW pumped storage power plant in a typical provincial receiving grid in 2030 as an example, Ni et al. calculated that each MW of installed capacity can promote new energy consumption of 2317 MWh per year and reduce carbon emissions of 1417 tCO

_{2}per year. Both this paper and Ni et al. verified that pumped storage could improve the low-carbon nature of new power system operation. Since the proportion of new energy installed in the example system in reference [13] is as high as 50% (30% in this paper), the operational effect of pumped storage in promoting new energy consumption is more obvious. This paper not only considers the carbon emission reduction generated by pumped storage to promote the substitution of new energy to thermal power but also considers the carbon emission reduction generated by optimizing the thermal power operation conditions (improving the thermal power load rate) and evaluates the carbon emission reduction benefits more obviously.

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**A comprehensive evaluation index system for the operational effect of pumped storage in the new power system.

**Figure 5.**Single scoring results of indexes of pumped storage plants to be evaluated with different installed capacities, regulation durations, and conversion efficiencies.

**Figure 7.**Comprehensive evaluation results of pumped storage plants to be evaluated with different installed capacities, regulation durations, and conversion efficiencies.

**Table 1.**Comprehensive evaluation index table of the pumped storage operation effect in new power systems.

Target Layer A | Guideline Layer B | Factor Layer C |
---|---|---|

Comprehensive evaluation of the operational effect of pumped storage | Economy dimension benefits B_{1} | Replacing thermal power capacity C_{11} |

Saving on power generation costs C_{12} | ||

Low-carbon dimension benefits B_{2} | Promoting new energy power consumption C_{21} | |

Carbon emissions reduction C_{22} | ||

Flexibility dimension benefits B_{3} | Available frequency regulation capacity C_{31} | |

Available reactive energy C_{32} | ||

Reliability dimension benefits B_{4} | Available rotational inertia C_{41} | |

Expected energy storage capacity C_{4}_{2} |

Index Name | Benchmark Plant | Plant 1 | Plant 2 | Plant 3 | Plant 4 | Plant 5 | Plant 6 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Replacing thermal power capacity/MW | 0.76 | 1.00 | 0.97 | 0.90 | 1.00 | 0.76 | 1.00 |

Saving on power generation costs/CNY million | 1.06 | 1.08 | 1.01 | 1.00 | 1.11 | 1.01 | 1.11 |

Promoting new energy power consumption /MWh | 470 | 490 | 502 | 394 | 536 | 472 | 455 |

Carbon emission reduction/t | 3313 | 3359 | 3189 | 3138 | 3487 | 3217 | 3454 |

Available frequency regulation capacity/MWh | 1274 | 1506 | 1331 | 1264 | 1405 | 1266 | 1413 |

Available reactive energy/MVArh | 2547 | 2510 | 2661 | 2527 | 2809 | 2531 | 2825 |

Available rotational inertia/MWs | 3.12 | 2.45 | 3.41 | 2.96 | 3.38 | 3.09 | 3.39 |

Expected energy storage capacity/MWh | 7.91 | 7.80 | 7.76 | 6.20 | 9.38 | 7.94 | 7.66 |

**Table 3.**Weight coefficient of comprehensive evaluation indexes for the pumped storage operation effect.

Objective Layer A | Criterion Layer B | Weight | Factor Layer C | Single Weight | Comprehensive Weight |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Comprehensive evaluation of the operational effect of pumped storage | Economy dimension benefits B_{1} | 0.138 | Replacing thermal power capacity C_{11} | 0.333 | 0.046 |

Saving on power generation costs C_{12} | 0.667 | 0.092 | |||

Low-carbon dimension benefits B_{2} | 0.195 | Promoting new energy power consumption C_{21} | 0.333 | 0.130 | |

Carbon emission reduction C_{22} | 0.667 | 0.065 | |||

Flexibility dimension benefits B_{3} | 0.391 | Available frequency regulation capacity C_{31} | 0.5 | 0.195 | |

Available reactive energy C_{32} | 0.5 | 0.195 | |||

Reliability dimension benefits B_{4} | 0.276 | Available rotational inertia C_{41} | 0.667 | 0.184 | |

Expected energy storage capacity C_{42} | 0.333 | 0.092 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Lu, Q.; Liu, D.; Xie, P.; Wang, M.; Yu, Z.; Liu, Y.
Comprehensive Evaluation of a Pumped Storage Operation Effect Considering Multidimensional Benefits of a New Power System. *Energies* **2024**, *17*, 4449.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17174449

**AMA Style**

Yang Y, Yang Y, Lu Q, Liu D, Xie P, Wang M, Yu Z, Liu Y.
Comprehensive Evaluation of a Pumped Storage Operation Effect Considering Multidimensional Benefits of a New Power System. *Energies*. 2024; 17(17):4449.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17174449

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yang, Yinguo, Ying Yang, Qiuyu Lu, Dexu Liu, Pingping Xie, Mu Wang, Zhenfan Yu, and Yang Liu.
2024. "Comprehensive Evaluation of a Pumped Storage Operation Effect Considering Multidimensional Benefits of a New Power System" *Energies* 17, no. 17: 4449.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en17174449