Active Damping Stabilization Techniques for Cascaded Systems in DC Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review
Abstract
:1. Introduction
 This paper reviews the active damping compensation techniques for a cascaded system to stabilize the CPL effects in DC MGs. The merits and drawbacks of each scheme are elaborated.
 Stability analysis and stability challenges of cascaded system in DC MGs have been presented.
 The delays in digitally controlled systems and their effect on active damping control have been covered and discussed.
 This review paves the road for further investigation on active damping control strategies and their application in DC MGs.
2. Constant Power Load (CPL) Modelling
3. Performance and Stability Analysis of Cascaded DCDC Systems
3.1. The Effect of the Load on the Source Subsystem
3.2. The Effect of the Source on the Load Converter
3.3. Impedance Interaction and Stability Analysis
4. Classification of CPL Compensation Techniques
4.1. Passive Damping
4.2. Active Damping
4.2.1. Source Side Active Damping
Case study on Source Side Active Damping
4.2.2. CPL Side Active Damping
4.2.3. Using Auxiliary Circuits or IntermediateLevel Active Damping
5. The Delays in Digitally Controlled Systems and Their Effect on Active Damping Control
6. Challenges and Future Research Directions
 An investigation of the generalization of active stabilizing techniques is required for the complex DC MGs. Moreover, the stability issues for DC MGs in the presence of dynamic loads and CPLs need to be addressed.
 The linear active damping techniques are operating pointdependent and can compensate only a limited amount of CPL. Therefore, nonlinear damping techniques can be investigated to address the above problem.
 Further, the tuning parameters of active damping techniques are converterdependent and they would vary from one converter to another. Thus, converterfree active damping techniques need to be developed to address the problems of converter dependence.
 The performance of damping techniques depends on converters and the modelling of the complex system and the perfect design of parameters. Therefore, to make modelfree stabilization, one can look into datadriven control techniques to improve the stability of the DC MGs.
 In a more complicated DC network with several source converters, interactions between their control loops have an impact on the converter performance. Therefore, the modelling and stability analysis of the much more practical systems, e.g., multiterminal DC MG with CPL, is required to investigate.
 Research on the optimal placement of CPL (e.g., fast DC chargers for EVs) is further required to ensure the stability of the DC MGs, a practical scenario in an EV parking lot with incoming and outgoing EVs.
 When addressing the effects of CPL in cascaded systems, the majority of active damping techniques focused on smallsignal stability, which can only ensure stability for small disturbances. However, the system under large disturbances is also important. Thus, further exploration with largesignal stability is required to ensure the global stability of the system over a wide dynamic range.
 Based on the observations above, we can conclude that the majority of the work is based on a cascaded DCDC converter system. However, there has been very little work with cascaded DC–AC converter systems or in islanded MGs. Future research is still needed.
 Finally, research that aims to reduce the number of sensors, controller order and implementation complexity is required.
7. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Nomenclature
$AD$  Active damping 
$DGMGs$  Direct Current microgrids 
$CPL$  Constant power load 
$EV$s  Electric vehicles 
$POL$  Point of load converter 
$DOE$  Department of Energy 
$ZOH$  Zeroorder hold 
$AD$  Active damping 
$MGs$  Microgrids 
$REG$  Renewable energy generation 
$SSVI$  Sourceside series virtual impedance 
$LSVI$  Loadside series virtual impedance 
$LPVI$  Loadside parallel virtual impedance 
$ASVI$  Adaptive series virtual impedance 
$APVI$  Adaptive parallel virtual impedance 
$LPF$  Low pass filter 
$HPF$  High pass filter 
$BPF$  Bandpass filter 
${K}_{AD}$  Gain of active damping 
$LVDC$  Low voltage direct current 
$PWM$  Pulse width modulation 
$MEG$  Microgrid exchange group 
$MEA$  more electric aircraft 
$NII$  negative incremental impedance 
$GMPM$  Gain and phase margin 
$ESAC$  Energy source analysis consortium 
$MPC$  Maximum peak criterion 
$LFR$  Lossfree resistance 
$AACC$  Adaptive active capacitor converter 
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Ref.  Stabilization Structure  Salient Features  Drawbacks 

[25] 

 
[61] 

 
[93] 

 
[98] 

 
[99] 

 
[100] 

 
[101] 

 
[102] 


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Kumar, R.; Bhende, C.N. Active Damping Stabilization Techniques for Cascaded Systems in DC Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review. Energies 2023, 16, 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031339
Kumar R, Bhende CN. Active Damping Stabilization Techniques for Cascaded Systems in DC Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review. Energies. 2023; 16(3):1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031339
Chicago/Turabian StyleKumar, Ranjan, and Chandrashekhar N. Bhende. 2023. "Active Damping Stabilization Techniques for Cascaded Systems in DC Microgrids: A Comprehensive Review" Energies 16, no. 3: 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031339