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Review

Fouling Behavior and Dispersion Stability of Nanoparticle-Based Refrigeration Fluid

1
Department of Physics “E.R. Caianiello”, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
2
Nano_Mates (Research Centre for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology at the University of Salerno), University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
3
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Annunziata D’Orazio and Arash Karimipour
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093059
Received: 31 December 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2022 / Accepted: 19 April 2022 / Published: 22 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofluids Heat Transfer)
Nanofluids as heat transfer fluids have been acquiring popularity ever since their beginning. Therefore, the refrigeration research could not keep itself away from the ever-rising horizon of nanofluid applications. On the other hand, nanofluid stability remains the critical bottleneck for use. A significant reduction in nanofluids’ performance can derivate from instability phenomena. Looking to industrial applications, nanofluid long-term stability and reusability are crucial requisites. Nanoparticles’ deposits induce microchannel circuit obstruction, limiting the proper functioning of the device and negating the beneficial characteristics of the nanofluid. The aggregation and sedimentation of the particles may also determine the increased viscosity and pumping cost, and reduced thermal properties. So, there is a need to address the features of nanofluid starting from realization, evaluation, stabilization methods, and operational aspects. In this review, investigations of nanorefrigerants are summarized. In particular, a description of the preparation procedures of nanofluids was reported, followed by a deep elucidation of the mechanism of nanofluid destabilization and sedimentation, and finally, the literature results in this field were reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; nanofluids; nanorefrigerants; stability nanoparticles; nanofluids; nanorefrigerants; stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ponticorvo, E.; Iuliano, M.; Cirillo, C.; Maiorino, A.; Aprea, C.; Sarno, M. Fouling Behavior and Dispersion Stability of Nanoparticle-Based Refrigeration Fluid. Energies 2022, 15, 3059. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093059

AMA Style

Ponticorvo E, Iuliano M, Cirillo C, Maiorino A, Aprea C, Sarno M. Fouling Behavior and Dispersion Stability of Nanoparticle-Based Refrigeration Fluid. Energies. 2022; 15(9):3059. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ponticorvo, Eleonora, Mariagrazia Iuliano, Claudia Cirillo, Angelo Maiorino, Ciro Aprea, and Maria Sarno. 2022. "Fouling Behavior and Dispersion Stability of Nanoparticle-Based Refrigeration Fluid" Energies 15, no. 9: 3059. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093059

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