# Numerical Study of Multiphase Water–Glycerol Emulsification Process in a Y-Junction Horizontal Pipeline

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Experimental Setup

## 3. Numerical Setup

#### 3.1. Case Study

#### 3.2. Numerical Domain Details

#### 3.3. Numerical Discretization

#### 3.4. Governing Equations

#### 3.5. Interfacial and Surface Tension Treatment

#### 3.6. Turbulence Model

#### 3.7. Sensitivity Analysis and Validation

## 4. Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. Strain Rate Analysis

#### 4.2. Shear Velocity Analysis

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Top view of the complete experimental rig setup (

**A**), injection point close-up (

**B**). (1), (2) and (3) phases nozzles.

**Figure 3.**Pressure plot, values along the central marker. Experimental data obtained from [17].

Case Studies | 1 | 2 | 3 | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Nozzle | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

Water | X | O | O | O | X | O | O | O | X |

Glycerol | O | X | X | X | O | X | X | X | O |

Case Studies | 4 | 5 | 6 | ||||||

Nozzle | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

Water | O | X | X | X | O | X | X | X | O |

Glycerol | X | O | O | O | X | O | O | O | X |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

De la Cruz-Ávila, M.; Carvajal-Mariscal, I.; Klapp, J.; Guzmán, J.E.V.
Numerical Study of Multiphase Water–Glycerol Emulsification Process in a Y-Junction Horizontal Pipeline. *Energies* **2022**, *15*, 2723.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082723

**AMA Style**

De la Cruz-Ávila M, Carvajal-Mariscal I, Klapp J, Guzmán JEV.
Numerical Study of Multiphase Water–Glycerol Emulsification Process in a Y-Junction Horizontal Pipeline. *Energies*. 2022; 15(8):2723.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082723

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

De la Cruz-Ávila, M., I. Carvajal-Mariscal, J. Klapp, and J. E. V. Guzmán.
2022. "Numerical Study of Multiphase Water–Glycerol Emulsification Process in a Y-Junction Horizontal Pipeline" *Energies* 15, no. 8: 2723.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en15082723