A Review of the Status of Fossil and Renewable Energies in Southeast Asia and Its Implications on the Decarbonization of ASEAN
2. Objective and Methodology
3. Energy Resources in ASEAN
3.1. Status of Renewable Energies in ASEAN
3.1.1. Hydropower Resources
3.1.2. Sustainability Issues with Hydropower
3.1.3. Solar PV
3.1.7. Sustainability Issues with Bioenergy
3.2. Status of Fossil and Nuclear Energies in ASEAN
3.2.2. Sustainability Issues with Coal
3.2.3. Natural Gas
3.2.5. Nuclear Energy
4. Can Renewable Energies Replace Fossil Energies in ASEAN?
4.1. Status of Electricity Capacity and Generation in ASEAN
4.2. Status of Energy Consumption in ASEAN
5. Decarbonization of Major Energy-Consumption Sectors
5.1. Decarbonizing the Power Sector
5.2. Decarbonizing the Transport Sector
5.3. Decarbonizing the Industry Sector
5.4. Role of CCS in Decarbonization of ASEAN
5.4.1. CO2 Storage Capacity in ASEAN’s Sedimentary Basins
5.4.2. First-Mover CCS Projects across ASEAN
5.5. Sustainability Rating of Decarbonizing Technologies
6. Decarbonization Pathways for ASEAN
6.1. Increasing the Share of Sustainable Renewable Energies in Power Generation
6.2. Switching from Coal to Gas in Power Generation
6.3. Electricification of Road Transport
6.4. Hydrogen Fuel for Marine Transport
6.5. Biofuels for Aviation
6.6. Blue Hydrogen for Industry
6.7. CCS Corridors
7. Policy Implications
7.1. Dealing with Sustainability Issues with Hydropower and Bioenergy
7.2. Establishing a Roadmap for Electric Vehicles
7.3. Introducing a Credible Carbon Tax
7.4. Holding Public Engagement on CCS
7.5. Establishing Cross-Border CCS Corridors
7.6. Setting a National Hydrogen Strategy
7.7. Public-Private Partnerships to Promote Energy Transition
- As of 2018, ASEAN’s TPES consisted of 20% renewables, 25% coal, 35% oil and 20% gas.
- As of 2019, renewable electricity contributed to only 20% of total electricity generation, while fossil electricity contributed to 80%.
- In the power sector, hydropower, solar PV and bioenergy are the three dominant forms of renewable energy in ASEAN. However, both hydropower and bioenergy suffer from substantial sustainability issues, such as over-damming of the Mekong River for hydropower, and deforestation caused by palm oil plantations for bioenergy.
- Despite the increase in renewable electricity capacity in ASEAN in the last two decades, the ratio of renewable energy consumption as a percent of TFEC has dropped from 39% in 2000 to 30% in 2015, with a continuing trend. This reveals that, in the last two decades, the addition of renewable electricity in the power sector was more than offset by the increased use of fossil energies in the other sectors. As fossil energies will remain an important part of the energy mix in the period leading to 2050, it is crucial that ASEAN countries consider the use of CCS to decarbonize all fossil-fuel-consuming sectors.
- Research has shown that there is enough CO2 storage space in ASEAN’s sedimentary basins to store more than two centuries of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, with the majority residing in saline aquifers, and the remaining in oil and gas reservoirs.
- This and other recent studies propose six first-mover CCS projects, which could mitigate up to 300 Mtpa CO2 from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.
- Decarbonization pathways for ASEAN countries follow the following common themes: (1) increasing share of sustainable renewable energies in power generation, (2) switching from coal to gas in power generation, (3) electrification of road transport, (4) hydrogen for marine transport, (5) biofuels for aviation, (6) blue hydrogen for industry, and (7) CCS corridors.
- A number of energy policy implications follow from this study. They include: (1) dealing with sustainability issues with hydropower and bioenergy, (2) establishing a roadmap for EVs, (3) introducing a credible carbon tax, (4) holding public engagements on CCS, (5) establishing cross-border CCS corridors, (6) setting a national hydrogen strategy, and (7) using public–private partnerships to promote energy transition.
- Future research should focus on three areas. The first is how ASEAN countries can increase hydropower without over-damming major rivers such as the Mekong. The second is how to increase bioenergy without further clearing ASEAN’s remaining rainforests for first-generation biocrop plantations. The third is a detailed characterization of ASEAN’s saline aquifers to identify the best ones for CO2 storage.
- ASEAN governments can work together to implement the seven common pathways for decarbonization, for example, by partially funding CCS projects, establishing CCS corridors, introducing a carbon-trading system, and funding research on sustainable hydropower and bioenergy.
Conflicts of Interest
|ASEAN||Association of Southeast Asian Nations|
|Bio-aviation||Use biofuels for aviation|
|Blue H2||Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels with CCS|
|BTU||British thermal unit|
|CCS||Carbon capture and storage|
|CCU||Carbon capture and utilization|
|CCUS||Carbon capture, utilization, and storage|
|Coalgas-power||Replace coal by gas for power generation|
|CoalH2-CCS||Hydrogen production by coal gasificatin with CCS|
|CO2-EGR||Carbon dioxide enhanced gas recovery|
|CO2-EOR||Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery|
|CP-CCS||Coal-fired power plant with carbon capture and storage|
|CSP||Concentrated solar power|
|EGR||Enhanced gas recovery|
|EOR||Enhanced oil recovery|
|GasH2-CCS||Hydrogen production by methane steam reforming with CCS|
|GP-CCS||Gas-fired power plant with carbon capture and storage|
|GDP||Gross domestic product|
|Green H2||Hydrogen produced by electrolysis with renewable electricity|
|Grey H2||Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels without CCS|
|ICE||Internal combustion engine|
|Ind-CCS||Use CCS in industrial plants|
|H2-marine||Hydrogen fuel for ships|
|HFCV||Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle|
|Solar PV||Solar photovoltaic|
|Gtpa||109 tonnes per annum|
|Mtpa||106 tonnes per annum|
|OOIP||Original oil-in-place, bbl|
|Tcf||1012 cubic ft|
|TFEC||Total final energy consumption|
|TPES||Total primary energy supply|
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|Previous Study||Country||Major Results||Research Gap|
|Zhang et al. 2022 ||Thailand||Major CO2 source and sinks in Thailand are identified. Six CCS clusters are proposed.||Study only covers in-country CCS.|
|Oh (2012) ||Malaysia||CCS is needed to decarbonize coal-fired power plants. Challenges include low public awareness, lack of regulatory oversight, high cost and lack of assessment of CO2 storage capacity||No quantitative assessment of CO2 emission and storage potential.|
|Lai et al. (2011) ||Malaysia||Power sector will benefit from CCS. However, lack of assessment of CO2 storage capacity in the subsurface is a key factor.||No quantitative assessment of CO2 storage capacity.|
|Ibrahim et al. (2015) ||Malaysia||CCUS is a must-have technology for decarbonization. However, lack of funds is a key factor. Government should raise public awareness and introduce carbon tax, and carbon trading.||No quantitative assessment of CO2 storage capacity.|
|Sukor et al. (2020) ||Malaysia||Techno-economic analysis of using CCS to reduce CO2 concentration in the produced gas from 37 to 8 mole% in the offshore Tangga Barat project shows positive net present value||No quantitative assessment of CO2 storage capacity.|
|Adisaputro and Saputra (2017) ||Indonesia||Both CCU and CCS are needed to reduce CO2 emission. In CCU, CO2 is used to produce urea and other chemicals.||CO2 source-sink mapping not conducted. No breakdown of CO2 abatement between CCS and CCU.|
|Lau and Ramakrishna (2021) ||Singapore||CO2 sources from Singapore are identified. Centralized post-combustion carbon capture and a regional CCS corridor are proposed.||CO2 source-sink mapping is not conducted.|
|Lau et al. (2021) ||Singapore||A roadmap for decarbonization is proposed consisting of post-combustion carbon capture, hydrogen production, biorefining, and use of electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.||CO2 source-sink mapping is not conducted.|
|Zhang and Lau (2022) ||Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia||Within 1000 km from Singapore, CO2 storage potential is 386 Gt. A CCS corridor is proposed.||Study covers part of Indonesia and Malaysia.|
|ADB (2013) ||Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, South Sumatra||There is 57 Gt CO2 storage potential in these countries.||Study covers only part of Indonesia. Detailed CO2 source-sink mapping is not provided.|
|Country||Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Business-as-Usual Case by 2030|
|Indonesia||29% unconditional, 41% conditional on international assistance|
|Malaysia||45% unconditional reduction in emission intensity compared by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.|
|Thailand||20% unconditional; 25% conditional|
|Vietnam||8% unconditional; 25% conditional|
|Philippines||2.71% unconditional; 72% conditional|
|Singapore||36% unconditional reduction in emission intensity by 2030 based on 2005 levels. Peak CO2 emission at 65 Mtpa or less by 2030. Achieve net-zero by 2050.|
|Country||Export (103 Short Ton)||Import (103 Short Ton)||Production (103 Short Ton)||Consumption (103 Short Ton)||Net Import (103 Short Ton)|
|Country||Basin||Gas Fields (Mt)||Oil Fields (Mt)||Saline Aquifers (Mt)||Reference|
|CO2 Sink||CO2 Source||CO2 Transport||Reference|
|Country||Field & Basin||CO2 Storage Capacity (Mt)||Type of CO2 Source||Location||Country||CO2 Emission (Mtpa)||CO2 Transport||Source-Sink Distance (km)|
|Indonesia||Arun gas field, North Sumatra (onshore)||1230||Power chemical, refinery||Jurong Island||Singapore||32||Ship||890||[7,8,9,61]|
|Power, cement, refinery||North Sumatra||Indonesia||10||Pipeline||250||[7,8,9,61]|
|Indonesia||Minas oil field, Central Sumatra (onshore)||113||Power, chemical, refinery||Jurong Island||Singapore||32||Pipeline||200||[7,8,9]|
|Power, cement, refinery||Central Sumatra||Indonesia||19||Pipeline||250||[7,8,9]|
|Malaysia||Dulang, Tapis, Seligi oil fields, Malay Basin (offshore)||106||Power, cement, chemical, refinery||Jurong Island||Singapore||32||Ship or pipeline||440|||
|Cement, iron & steel, power, refinery||Peninsular Malaysia||Malaysia||137||Pipeline||250|||
|Thailand||Saline aquifers in Phitsanulok, Supan Buri, Phetchabun basins (onshore)||2053||Cement in Saraburi, power in Kamphaeng Phet||Saraburi||Thailand||41||Pipeline||20 to 200|||
|Thailand||Saline aquifers in Khorat Basin (onshore)||62,775||Petrochemical, iron & steel, refinery, power||Bangkok & Rayong||Thailand||77||Pipeline||100 to 200|||
|Thailand||Saline aquifers in Chumpon Basin (offshore)||2945||Gas processing, cement, power||Nakhon Si, Nakhon Sri Thammart, Surat Thai, Krabi, Phuket||Thailand||10||Pipeline||50 to 200|||
|CO2 Emission||Material Footprint||Impact on People||Impact on Animals||Impact on Environment *|
|All||Grey H2||H2 from fossil fuels||High||Moderate||High||High||high|
|CCU||Convert CO2 to products||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Green H2||H2 from renewable electricity||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Power & industry||CCS corridor||CCS with economies of scale||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Power||Nuclear||Nuclear power plant||Low||High||High||High||High|
|Bioenergy||Bioenergy power plant||Low||Moderate||High||High||High|
|Geothermal||Geothermal power plant||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Solar||Solar PV, CSP||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Moderate|
|Coal→gas||Replace coal by gas||Moderate||Low||Low||Low||Moderate|
|CP-CCS||Coal-fired power plant with CCS||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|GP-CCS||Gas-fired power plant with CCS||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Transport||Bio-aviation||Biofuel for aviation||Low||Moderate||High||High||High|
|HFCV||Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|H2-marine||H2 fuel for ship||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Industry||Coal→H2-CCS||Blue H2 from coal with CCS||Moderate||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Gas→H2-CCS||Blue H2 from gas with CCS||Moderate||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
|Ind-CCS||Use CCS for industry plants||Low||Moderate||Low||Low||Low|
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Lau, H.C.; Zhang, K.; Bokka, H.K.; Ramakrishna, S. A Review of the Status of Fossil and Renewable Energies in Southeast Asia and Its Implications on the Decarbonization of ASEAN. Energies 2022, 15, 2152. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062152
Lau HC, Zhang K, Bokka HK, Ramakrishna S. A Review of the Status of Fossil and Renewable Energies in Southeast Asia and Its Implications on the Decarbonization of ASEAN. Energies. 2022; 15(6):2152. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062152Chicago/Turabian Style
Lau, Hon Chung, Kai Zhang, Harsha Kumar Bokka, and Seeram Ramakrishna. 2022. "A Review of the Status of Fossil and Renewable Energies in Southeast Asia and Its Implications on the Decarbonization of ASEAN" Energies 15, no. 6: 2152. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062152