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Impact of Magnesium Sources for Phosphate Recovery and/or Removal from Waste

Department of Civil Engineering, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah P.O. Box 26666, United Arab Emirates
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Idiano D’Adamo
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4585;
Received: 30 May 2022 / Revised: 20 June 2022 / Accepted: 21 June 2022 / Published: 23 June 2022
As the population continues to rise, the demand for resources and environmentally friendly management of produced wastes has shown a significant increase in concern. To decrease the impact of these wastes on the environment, it is important to utilize the wastes in producing and/or recovering usable products to provide for the sustainable management of resources. One non-renewable and rapidly diminishing resource is phosphorus, which is used in several products, the most important being its use in manufacturing chemical fertilizer. With the increase in demand but reduction in availability of naturally occurring mineral phosphorus, it is important to investigate other sources of phosphorus. Phosphorus is most commonly recovered through struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) precipitation. The recovery of phosphorus from various wastewater has been well established and documented with recovery rates mostly above 90%. However, one of the major drawbacks of the recovery is the high cost of chemicals needed to precipitate the phosphorus. Since the external magnesium needed to achieve struvite precipitation accounts for around 75% of the total chemical cost, applicability of low-cost magnesium sources, such as bittern or seawater, can help reduce the operational cost significantly. This paper investigates the different magnesium sources that have been used for the recovery of phosphorus, highlighting the different approaches and operating conditions investigated, and their corresponding phosphorus recovery rates. An investigation of the economic aspects of the magnesium sources used for removal/recovery show that costs are dependent on the raw waste treated, the source of magnesium and the location of treatment. A review of published articles on the economics of phosphorus removal/recovery also indicates that there is a lack of studies on the economics of the treatment processes, and there is a need for a comprehensive study on life cycle assessment of such processes that go beyond the technical and economical aspects of treatment processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphate; nutrient recovery; magnesium; reject brine; struvite phosphate; nutrient recovery; magnesium; reject brine; struvite
MDPI and ACS Style

Fattah, K.P.; Sinno, S.; Atabay, S.; Khan, Z.; Al-Dawood, Z.; Yasser, A.K.; Temam, R. Impact of Magnesium Sources for Phosphate Recovery and/or Removal from Waste. Energies 2022, 15, 4585.

AMA Style

Fattah KP, Sinno S, Atabay S, Khan Z, Al-Dawood Z, Yasser AK, Temam R. Impact of Magnesium Sources for Phosphate Recovery and/or Removal from Waste. Energies. 2022; 15(13):4585.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fattah, Kazi Parvez, Sarah Sinno, Serter Atabay, Zahid Khan, Zahraa Al-Dawood, Alaa Kamel Yasser, and Riyad Temam. 2022. "Impact of Magnesium Sources for Phosphate Recovery and/or Removal from Waste" Energies 15, no. 13: 4585.

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