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Open AccessArticle

Assessment of the Potential for Green Hydrogen Fuelling of Very Heavy Vehicles in New Zealand

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Center of Renewable Energy and Appropriate Technologies, School of Engineering and Architecture, Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City 8000, Philippines
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Sustainable Energy Systems, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
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Department of Industrial Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Attilio Converti
Energies 2021, 14(9), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092636
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 2 May 2021 / Published: 4 May 2021
This study examined the feasibility of green hydrogen as a transport fuel for the very heavy vehicle (VHV) fleet in New Zealand. Green hydrogen is assumed to be produced through water electrolysis using purely renewable energy (RE) as an electricity source. This study chose very heavy vehicles as a potential market for green hydrogen, because it is considered “low-hanging fruit” for hydrogen fuel in a sector where battery electrification is less feasible. The study assumed a large-scale, decentralized, embedded (dedicated) grid-connected hydrogen system of production using polymer electrolytic membrane (PEM) electrolysers. The analysis comprised three steps. First, the hydrogen demand was calculated. Second, the additional RE requirement was determined and compared with consented, but unbuilt, capacity. Finally, the hydrogen production cost was calculated using the concept of levelized cost. Sensitivity analysis and cost reduction scenarios were also undertaken. The results indicate an overall green hydrogen demand for VHVs of 71 million kg, or 8.5 PJ, per year, compared to the 14.7 PJ of diesel fuel demand for the same VHV travelled kilometres. The results also indicate that the estimated 9824 GWh of RE electricity that could be generated from consented, yet unbuilt, RE projects is greater than the electricity demand for green hydrogen production, which was calculated to be 4492 GWh. The calculated levelized hydrogen cost is NZD 6.83/kg. Electricity cost was found to be the most significant cost parameter for green hydrogen production. A combined cost reduction for CAPEX and electricity translates to a hydrogen cost reduction in 10 to 20 years.
Keywords: green hydrogen fuel; very heavy vehicles; electrolysis; levelized cost of hydrogen green hydrogen fuel; very heavy vehicles; electrolysis; levelized cost of hydrogen
MDPI and ACS Style

Perez, R.J.; Brent, A.C.; Hinkley, J. Assessment of the Potential for Green Hydrogen Fuelling of Very Heavy Vehicles in New Zealand. Energies 2021, 14, 2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092636

AMA Style

Perez RJ, Brent AC, Hinkley J. Assessment of the Potential for Green Hydrogen Fuelling of Very Heavy Vehicles in New Zealand. Energies. 2021; 14(9):2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perez, Rapha J.; Brent, Alan C.; Hinkley, James. 2021. "Assessment of the Potential for Green Hydrogen Fuelling of Very Heavy Vehicles in New Zealand" Energies 14, no. 9: 2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14092636

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