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Open AccessArticle

European Union Green Deal and the Opportunity Cost of Wastewater Treatment Projects

1
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Energy Department, Renewable Energy Division, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Applied Economics, Structure and History, Faculty of Economics and Business, Campus de Somosaguas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Pozuelo de Alarcón s/n, 28223 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Business Economics (ADO), Applied Economics II and Fundamentals of Economic Analysis, Social and Legal Sciences School, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Paseo de Artilleros s/n, 28033 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Zuorro
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1994; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071994
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 4 April 2021
The European Union Green Deal aims at curbing greenhouse gas emissions and introducing clean energy production. But to achieve energy efficiency, the opportunity cost of different energies must be assessed. In this article, two different energy self-sufficient systems for wastewater treatment are compared. On the one hand, high-rate algal ponds system (HRAP) is considered; on the other hand, a conventional activated sludge system (AS) which uses photovoltaic power (PV) is studied. The paper offers a viability analysis of both systems based on the capacity to satisfy their energetic consumption. This viability analysis, along with the opportunity cost study, will be used in the article to compare these two projects devoted to the treatment of wastewater. In order to assess viability, the probability of not achieving the energy consumption threshold at least one day is studied. The results point that the AS+PV system self-sufficiency is achieved with much lesser land requirements than the HRAP system (for the former, less than 6500 m2, for the latter 40,000 m2). However, the important AS capital cost makes still the HRAP system more economic, although storage provides a great advantage for using the AS+PV in locations where a lot of irradiance is available. View Full-Text
Keywords: EU Green Deal; Horizon 2030; clean energy production; high-rate algal ponds (HRAP); activated sludge system (AS); photovoltaic power (PV) EU Green Deal; Horizon 2030; clean energy production; high-rate algal ponds (HRAP); activated sludge system (AS); photovoltaic power (PV)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vindel, J.M.; Trincado, E.; Sánchez-Bayón, A. European Union Green Deal and the Opportunity Cost of Wastewater Treatment Projects. Energies 2021, 14, 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071994

AMA Style

Vindel JM, Trincado E, Sánchez-Bayón A. European Union Green Deal and the Opportunity Cost of Wastewater Treatment Projects. Energies. 2021; 14(7):1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071994

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vindel, Jose M.; Trincado, Estrella; Sánchez-Bayón, Antonio. 2021. "European Union Green Deal and the Opportunity Cost of Wastewater Treatment Projects" Energies 14, no. 7: 1994. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071994

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