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Article

A Sizing Method for PV–Battery–Generator Systems for Off-Grid Applications Based on the LCOE

Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
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Academic Editor: Praveen Cheekatamarla
Energies 2021, 14(7), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071988
Received: 9 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 3 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Control of Hybrid Renewable Power Systems)
Electricity supply in nonelectrified areas can be covered by distributed renewable energy systems. The main disadvantage of these systems is the intermittent and often unpredictable nature of renewable energy sources. Moreover, the temporal distribution of renewable energy may not match that of energy demand. Systems that combine photovoltaic modules with electrical energy storage (EES) can eliminate the above disadvantages. However, the adoption of such solutions is often financially prohibitive. Therefore, all parameters that lead to a functionally reliable and self-sufficient power generation system should be carefully considered during the design phase of such systems. This study proposes a sizing method for off-grid electrification systems consisting of photovoltaics (PV), batteries, and a diesel generator set. The method is based on the optimal number of PV panels and battery energy capacity whilst minimizing the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for a period of 25 years. Validations against a synthesized load profile produced grid-independent systems backed by different accumulator technologies, with LCOEs ranging from 0.34 EUR/kWh to 0.46 EUR/kWh. The applied algorithm emphasizes a parameter of useful energy as a key output parameter for which the solar harvest is maximized in parallel with the minimization of the LCOE. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; battery; diesel generator; sizing method; renewable energy sources; off-grid power systems; levelized cost of electricity; distributed energy resources; electrical energy storage photovoltaics; battery; diesel generator; sizing method; renewable energy sources; off-grid power systems; levelized cost of electricity; distributed energy resources; electrical energy storage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kosmadakis, I.E.; Elmasides, C. A Sizing Method for PV–Battery–Generator Systems for Off-Grid Applications Based on the LCOE. Energies 2021, 14, 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071988

AMA Style

Kosmadakis IE, Elmasides C. A Sizing Method for PV–Battery–Generator Systems for Off-Grid Applications Based on the LCOE. Energies. 2021; 14(7):1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071988

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kosmadakis, Ioannis E., and Costas Elmasides. 2021. "A Sizing Method for PV–Battery–Generator Systems for Off-Grid Applications Based on the LCOE" Energies 14, no. 7: 1988. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071988

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