# A Survey on Applications of Hybrid PV/T Panels

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

- Home owners: They represent a very high potential to produce energy in order to use it for self-consumption or to share it within an energy community. In France, the average PV solar installation in homes has 3 kWp power. Adopting PV/Ts will also allow an additional 6 kWh (kW heat) which can be stored in a tank and used for sanitary or heating. The annual yield in northern France (where the sun is not so generous) is obtained by multiplying the power by the factor 1000 representing the annual radiation hours.
- Public buildings: Public buildings can be used for PV/T installations for self-consump-tion or sharing within the energy community for both heat and electricity. Besides reducing the energy bills and CO${}_{2}$ emissions, they will constitute valuable demonstrators for citizen and thus enhance PV/T adoption.
- District heating: They are very popular in Europe with thousands of installations mainly in the cities. PV/Ts can be installed close to any entry point of a district heating to inject the heat used locally for the plant or be used as a complementary source generally through a heat pump to maximize efficiency. Indeed, a PV/T integrated with a heat pump is more efficient than a conventional PV/T heating system.
- Industrial applications: Drying and desalination have very intensive energy consumption. Solar plants with PV/Ts have been proven to be useful and efficient for such processes.
- Solar farms: To maximize the efficiency of land use, PV/Ts can be used when heating/cooling is needed in the vicinity. This may be the case for agroindustrial factories,

## 2. Heat Extraction Medium

#### 2.1. Liquid-Based PV/T Collector

#### 2.1.1. Water-Based Collector

#### 2.1.2. Nano-Fluid Based Collector

#### 2.1.3. Phase Change Material Based Collector

#### 2.2. Air-Based PV/T Collector

#### 2.3. Bi-Fluid Based PV/T Collector

## 3. Applications

- Low-temperature applications take in heat pump systems and heating swimming pools or spas up to 50 ${}^{\circ}$C.
- Medium-temperature applications are found in buildings for domestic hot water and space heating where the temperature of up to 80 ${}^{\circ}$C is required. Further, PV/T integrated with a heat pump can be used for desiccant cooling that requires 50 to 60 ${}^{\circ}$C temperature.
- High-temperature applications with a temperature above 80 ${}^{\circ}$C are required for certain industrial processes, e.g., desalination and agro-industrial processes.

#### 3.1. PV/Ts versus PV + ST

- for PV + ST:$$S[x{P}_{PV}+(1-x){P}_{ST}]$$
- for PV/T:$$S{P}_{PVT}$$

- Dualsun [42]: Unit area = 1.66 m${}^{2}$, ${P}_{elec}=280$ Wp, ${P}_{ther}=570{\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{th}}$. Therefore ${P}_{PVT}=(280+570)/1.66=511$ W/m${}^{2}$. In this case, the above condition can be written $x>44.5\%$.
- Solimpeks [43]: Unit area = $1.37$ m${}^{2}$, ${P}_{elec}$ = 190 Wp, ${P}_{ther}$ = 460 ${\mathrm{W}}_{\mathrm{th}}$. Therefore ${P}_{PVT}$ = (190 + 460)/1.37 = 474.5 W/m${}^{2}.$ The above condition writes $x>50\%$.

#### 3.2. Building

- naturally driven systems are those in which flow rate varies over time and it is difficult to predict the performance
- mechanically driven systems are those where the flow rate is kept constant and it is easy to estimate the performance.

#### 3.3. Cooling (Air Conditioning)

- Photovoltaic solar panel
- Storage tank
- Cooling unit (chiller) that operates thermally
- Control unit.

#### Comparison of Grid Power, PV and PV/Ts for Cooling Purpose

- Case I: Direct grid power for air-conditioningA central air-conditioner on average uses 1 kWh per ton per hour [62]. Consider a two-ton air conditioner that runs for 12 h a day, the usage would be 24 kWh per day. The cost of electricity is assumed to be €0.30 per kWh (this depends on the country and €0.30 per kWh is for Germany, highest in EU-27 [63]). If the air-conditioner runs partially (6 h/day) and runs completely (12 h/day) for 3 months each then the total cost of using an air-conditioner for the whole year would be €972 (complete use: €648 and partial use: €324).
- Case II: PV power for air-conditioningThe yearly total energy output of a mono-crystalline silicon PV collector is 194.79 kWh/m${}^{2}$ and daily mean electrical yield is 3.21 kWh/kW${}_{\mathrm{p}}$/day, respectively [18]. Approximately three PV panels are required to cover the cooling demand for the whole year (3 months complete and 3 months partial use). The average cost assumed is €0.16 and the total cost for the whole year would be €555 which is approximately 43% less than the grid power used to operate an air-conditioner annually.
- Case III: PV/T integrating absorption chiller for air-conditioningAn absorption chiller takes surplus heat from the PV/T collector and provides cooling. Consider a PV/T with 73% thermal, 10.5% electrical efficiency, and a lithium bromide absorption cooler with a COP of 0.73. A PV/T with an area of 1.65 m${}^{2}$ produces 2096.5 kWh of heat and 298.5 kWh of electricity annually. The yearly daily average yield of the collector is 5.75 kWh of heat and 0.82 kWh electricity with a total efficiency of 83.5% [64]. The annual cooling yield is 1540 kWh by using a single PV/T collector and approximately 2 collectors are required to cover the annual cooling demand.

#### 3.4. Desalination

- Active solar still
- Passive solar still.

#### 3.5. Greenhouse Drying

- The total thermal energy gain from the PV/T greenhouse dryer for January is 70 kWh and it is more than 130 kWh during the month of July.
- The total electrical energy gain is approximately 17 kWh during January and 15 kWh in the month of July.

#### 3.6. District Heating/Cooling

#### 3.7. Trigeneration

#### 3.8. Refrigeration

#### 3.9. Heat Pump Integrated with a PV/T Collector

- For space heating, a three-way valve is supposed to bypass the storage if the temperature of the storage tank is lower than the water temperature from the radiant floor plant.
- Pump turns on if the solar radiation is >300 W/m${}^{2}$ and the temperature from PV/T collector is >7 ${}^{\circ}$C than storage temperature.
- Pump turns off if the temperature from PV/T collector is <3 ${}^{\circ}$C and not taking solar radiation into account.

#### 3.10. Software Tools

## 4. Conclusions and Perspectives

- The initial installation cost of these systems is higher and additional space is required for their applications.
- A possible drawback of these systems is that they highly depend on weather conditions and additional energy input is required to fulfill the supply of energy, especially during the winter season. In summer, there may be a waste of excess energy during depending on the location but this can be solved through storage.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BIPV/T | Building integrated photovoltaic-thermal |

CFC | Chlorofluorocarbons |

COP | Coefficient of performance |

CPV/T | Concentrating photovoltaic-thermal |

HVAC | Heating, ventillation, and air conditioning |

IEA | International energy agency |

PV | Photovoltaic |

PV/T | Photovoltaic-thermal |

PCM | Phase change material |

SHC | Solar heating and cooling |

ST | Solar thermal |

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**Figure 2.**Flow passages of a liqid-based PV/T collector: (

**a**) oscillatory flow, (

**b**) serpentine flow, (

**c**) web flow, (

**d**) parallel flow and (

**e**) parallel-serpentine flow.

**Figure 3.**Schematic diagram of a nano-fluid based PV/T collector [31].

**Figure 8.**Schematic diagram of solar absorption cooling [56].

**Figure 9.**Schematic diagram of PV/T hybrid active solar still [70].

**Figure 10.**Schematic diagram of PV/T integrated greenhouse dryer [73].

**Figure 12.**Structure of Community Energy Internet (CEI) with photovoltaic-thermal and heat pump (PV/T-HP) prosumers [80].

**Figure 13.**Schematic diagram of PV/T tri-generation system setup [84].

**Figure 14.**Schematic diagram of the proposed PV/T heat pump system on refrigeration mode [11].

**Figure 15.**Solar driven direct-expansion heat pump system employing the novel PV/minichannels-evaporator modules [90].

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ul Abdin, Z.; Rachid, A.
A Survey on Applications of Hybrid PV/T Panels. *Energies* **2021**, *14*, 1205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041205

**AMA Style**

Ul Abdin Z, Rachid A.
A Survey on Applications of Hybrid PV/T Panels. *Energies*. 2021; 14(4):1205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041205

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ul Abdin, Zain, and Ahmed Rachid.
2021. "A Survey on Applications of Hybrid PV/T Panels" *Energies* 14, no. 4: 1205.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041205