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Article

Optimising Electrical Power Supply Sustainability Using a Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System—An NHS Hospital Case Study

1
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH10 5DT, UK
2
School of Computer Science, University of Sunderland, St Peter Campus, St Peters Way, Sunderland SR6 0DD, UK
3
James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Manolis Souliotis
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7084; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217084
Received: 1 September 2021 / Revised: 11 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 29 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Energy and Environment)
This study focuses on improving the sustainability of electrical supply in the healthcare system in the UK, to contribute to current efforts made towards the 2050 net-zero carbon target. As a case study, we propose a grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) for a hospital in the south-east of England. Electrical consumption data were gathered from five wards in the hospital for a period of one year. PV-battery-grid system architecture was selected to ensure practical execution through the installation of PV arrays on the roof of the facility. Selection of the optimal system was conducted through a novel methodology combining multi-objective optimisation and data forecasting. The optimisation was conducted using a genetic algorithm with two objectives (1) minimisation of the levelised cost of energy and (2) CO2 emissions. Advanced data forecasting was used to forecast grid emissions and other cost parameters at two year intervals (2023 and 2025). Several optimisation simulations were carried out using the actual and forecasted parameters to improve decision making. The results show that incorporating forecasted parameters into the optimisation allows to identify the subset of optimal solutions that will become sub-optimal in the future and, therefore, should be avoided. Finally, a framework for choosing the most suitable subset of optimal solutions was presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: grid-connected; hybrid renewable energy systems; multi-objective optimisation; machine learning; forecasting; NHS; CO2 emissions; net-zero systems; hospital grid-connected; hybrid renewable energy systems; multi-objective optimisation; machine learning; forecasting; NHS; CO2 emissions; net-zero systems; hospital
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kahwash, F.; Barakat, B.; Taha, A.; Abbasi, Q.H.; Imran, M.A. Optimising Electrical Power Supply Sustainability Using a Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System—An NHS Hospital Case Study. Energies 2021, 14, 7084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217084

AMA Style

Kahwash F, Barakat B, Taha A, Abbasi QH, Imran MA. Optimising Electrical Power Supply Sustainability Using a Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System—An NHS Hospital Case Study. Energies. 2021; 14(21):7084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kahwash, Fadi, Basel Barakat, Ahmad Taha, Qammer H. Abbasi, and Muhammad Ali Imran. 2021. "Optimising Electrical Power Supply Sustainability Using a Grid-Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System—An NHS Hospital Case Study" Energies 14, no. 21: 7084. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217084

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