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Article

Towards a Zero-Carbon Electricity System for India in 2050: IDEEA Model-Based Scenarios Integrating Wind and Solar Complementarity and Geospatial Endowments

1
Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY 10010, USA
2
Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Bangalore 560012, India
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Global Change Programme, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, India
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Global Centre for Environment and Energy, Ahmedabad University, Ahmedabad 380009, India
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Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, India
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Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150, India
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Asian Institute of Technology, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Borge-Diez
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7063; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217063
Received: 19 August 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 28 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 100% Renewable Energy Transition: Pathways and Implementation II)
This study evaluated a potential transition of India’s power sector to 100% wind and solar energy sources. Applying a macro-energy IDEEA (Indian Zero Carbon Energy Pathways) model to 32 regions and 114 locations of potential installation of wind energy and 60 locations of solar energy, we evaluated a 100% renewable power system in India as a concept. We considered 153 scenarios with varying sets of generating and balancing technologies to evaluate each intermittent energy source separately and their complementarity. Our analysis confirms the potential technical feasibility and long-term reliability of a 100% renewable system for India, even with solar and wind energy only. Such a dual energy source system can potentially deliver fivefold the annual demand of 2019. The robust, reliable supply can be achieved in the long term, as verified by 41 years of weather data. The required expansion of energy storage and the grid will depend on the wind and solar energy structure and the types of generating technologies. Solar energy mostly requires intraday balancing that can be achieved through storage or demand-side flexibility. Wind energy is more seasonal and spatially scattered, and benefits from the long-distance grid expansion for balancing. The complementarity of the two resources on a spatial scale reduces requirements for energy storage. The demand-side flexibility is the key in developing low-cost supply with minimum curtailments. This can be potentially achieved with the proposed two-level electricity market where electricity prices reflect variability of the supply. A modelled experiment with price signals demonstrates how balancing capacity depends on the price levels of guaranteed and flexible types of loads, and therefore, can be defined by the market. View Full-Text
Keywords: decarbonisation; high-renewable power systems; net-zero emissions; energy models; IDEEA model decarbonisation; high-renewable power systems; net-zero emissions; energy models; IDEEA model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lugovoy, O.; Jyothiprakash, V.; Chatterjee, S.; Sharma, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Das, A.; Some, S.; Dinesha, D.L.; Das, N.; Bosu, P.; Dasgupta, S.; Padhi, L.; Roy, B.; Thakur, B.; Debsarkar, A.; Patil, B.; Roy, J. Towards a Zero-Carbon Electricity System for India in 2050: IDEEA Model-Based Scenarios Integrating Wind and Solar Complementarity and Geospatial Endowments. Energies 2021, 14, 7063. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217063

AMA Style

Lugovoy O, Jyothiprakash V, Chatterjee S, Sharma S, Mukherjee A, Das A, Some S, Dinesha DL, Das N, Bosu P, Dasgupta S, Padhi L, Roy B, Thakur B, Debsarkar A, Patil B, Roy J. Towards a Zero-Carbon Electricity System for India in 2050: IDEEA Model-Based Scenarios Integrating Wind and Solar Complementarity and Geospatial Endowments. Energies. 2021; 14(21):7063. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217063

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lugovoy, Oleg, Varun Jyothiprakash, Sourish Chatterjee, Samridh Sharma, Arijit Mukherjee, Abhishek Das, Shreya Some, Disha L. Dinesha, Nandini Das, Parthaa Bosu, Shyamasree Dasgupta, Lavanya Padhi, Biswanath Roy, Biswajit Thakur, Anupam Debsarkar, Balachandra Patil, and Joyashree Roy. 2021. "Towards a Zero-Carbon Electricity System for India in 2050: IDEEA Model-Based Scenarios Integrating Wind and Solar Complementarity and Geospatial Endowments" Energies 14, no. 21: 7063. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217063

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