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Article

A Brief Climatology of Dunkelflaute Events over and Surrounding the North and Baltic Sea Areas

1
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
2
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John Abraham
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6508; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206508
Received: 8 July 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 11 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Wind Power Meteorology)
In the coming decades, the European energy system is expected to become increasingly reliant on non-dispatchable generation such as wind and solar power. Under such a renewable energy scenario, a better characterization of the extreme weather condition ‘Dunkelflaute’, which can lead to a sustained reduction of wind and solar power, is important. In this paper, we report findings from the very first climatological study of Dunkelflaute events occurring in eleven countries surrounding the North and Baltic Sea areas. By utilizing multi-year meteorological and power production datasets, we have quantified various statistics pertaining to these events and also identified their underlying meteorological drivers. It was found that almost all periods tagged as Dunkelflaute events (with a length of more than 24 h) are in November, December, and January for these countries. On average, there are 50–100 h of such events happening in each of these three months per year. The limited wind and solar power production during Dunkelflaute events is shown to be mainly driven by large-scale high-pressure systems and extensive low-cloud coverage. Even though the possibility of simultaneous Dunkelflaute events in neighboring countries can be as high as 30–40%, such events hardly occur simultaneously in all the eleven countries. Through an interconnected EU-11 power system, the mean frequency of Dunkelflaute drops from 3–9% for the individual countries to approximately 3.5% for the combined region, highlighting the importance of aggregating production over a wide area to better manage the integration of renewable energy generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: climatological analysis; grid connection; power reliability; solar energy; wind energy climatological analysis; grid connection; power reliability; solar energy; wind energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, B.; Basu, S.; Watson, S.J.; Russchenberg, H.W.J. A Brief Climatology of Dunkelflaute Events over and Surrounding the North and Baltic Sea Areas. Energies 2021, 14, 6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206508

AMA Style

Li B, Basu S, Watson SJ, Russchenberg HWJ. A Brief Climatology of Dunkelflaute Events over and Surrounding the North and Baltic Sea Areas. Energies. 2021; 14(20):6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Bowen, Sukanta Basu, Simon J. Watson, and Herman W. J. Russchenberg. 2021. "A Brief Climatology of Dunkelflaute Events over and Surrounding the North and Baltic Sea Areas" Energies 14, no. 20: 6508. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206508

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