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Article

Bio-Crude Production Improvement during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biopulp by Simultaneous Application of Alkali Catalysts and Aqueous Phase Recirculation

1
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Pontoppidanstræde 111, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
2
Institute of Catalysis Research and Technology (IKFT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Byong-Hun Jeon
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4492; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154492
Received: 9 July 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 23 July 2021 / Published: 25 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HTL Biocrude Production, Optimization, and Upgrading)
This study focuses on the valorization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (biopulp) by hydrothermal liquefaction. Thereby, homogeneous alkali catalysts (KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3) and a residual aqueous phase recirculation methodology were mutually employed to enhance the bio-crude yield and energy efficiency of a sub-critical hydrothermal conversion (350 °C, 15–20 Mpa, 15 min). Interestingly, single recirculation of the concentrated aqueous phase positively increased the bio-crude yield in all cases, while the higher heating value (HHV) of the bio-crudes slightly dropped. Compared to the non-catalytic experiment, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 effectively increased the bio-crude yield by 14 and 7.3%, respectively. However, KOH and NaOH showed a negative variation in the bio-crude yield. The highest bio-crude yield (37.5 wt.%) and energy recovery (ER) (59.4%) were achieved when K2CO3 and concentrated aqueous phase recirculation were simultaneously applied to the process. The inorganics distribution results obtained by ICP reveal the tendency of the alkali elements to settle into the aqueous phase, which, if recovered, can potentially boost the circularity of the HTL process. Therefore, wise selection of the alkali catalyst along with aqueous phase recirculation assists hydrothermal liquefaction in green biofuel production and environmentally friendly valorization of biopulp. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal liquefaction; municipal solid waste; biopulp; alkali catalyst; aqueous phase recirculation hydrothermal liquefaction; municipal solid waste; biopulp; alkali catalyst; aqueous phase recirculation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kohansal, K.; Sharma, K.; Toor, S.S.; Sanchez, E.L.; Zimmermann, J.; Aistrup Rosendahl, L.; Pedersen, T.H. Bio-Crude Production Improvement during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biopulp by Simultaneous Application of Alkali Catalysts and Aqueous Phase Recirculation. Energies 2021, 14, 4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154492

AMA Style

Kohansal K, Sharma K, Toor SS, Sanchez EL, Zimmermann J, Aistrup Rosendahl L, Pedersen TH. Bio-Crude Production Improvement during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biopulp by Simultaneous Application of Alkali Catalysts and Aqueous Phase Recirculation. Energies. 2021; 14(15):4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154492

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kohansal, Komeil, Kamaldeep Sharma, Saqib Sohail Toor, Eliana Lozano Sanchez, Joscha Zimmermann, Lasse Aistrup Rosendahl, and Thomas Helmer Pedersen. 2021. "Bio-Crude Production Improvement during Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biopulp by Simultaneous Application of Alkali Catalysts and Aqueous Phase Recirculation" Energies 14, no. 15: 4492. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154492

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