Leadership Competencies in Making Industry 4.0 Effective: The Case of Polish Heat and Power Industry
2. Literature Review
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Basic Assumptions and Research Model
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Measurement Items for Leadership Competencies and 4.0 Leadership Effectiveness in the Heat and Power Plants Industry
- My leader has a critical faculty that probes the facts, identifies advantages and disadvantages, and discerns the shortcomings of ideas and proposals.
- My leader makes sound judgments and decisions based on reasonable assumptions and factual information, and is aware of the impact of any assumptions made.
- My leader is imaginative and innovative in all aspects of one’s work.
- My leader establishes sound priorities for future work.
- My leader has a clear vision of the future direction of the organisation to meet business imperatives.
- My leader anticipates the impact of external and internal changes on one’s vision that reflect implementation issues and business realities.
- My leader sees the wider issues and broader implications.
- My leader explores a wide range of relationships and balances short- and long-term considerations.
- My leader is sensitive to the impact of one’s actions and decisions across the organisation.
- My leader identifies opportunities and threats.
- My leader is sensitive to stakeholders’ needs, external developments, and the implications of external factors on one’s decisions and actions.
- My leader clearly communicates instructions and vision to staff.
- My leader’s communication style expresses approachability and accessibility.
- My leader plans ahead, organises all resources, and coordinates them efficiently and effectively.
- My leader regularly and effectively monitors and evaluates staff performance and provides sensitive and honest feedback.
- My leader selects and uses actions that bring the greatest benefit to the organisation and increase productivity.
- My leader believes that others have the potential to take on ever more-demanding tasks and roles and encourages them to do so.
- My leader develops subordinates’ competencies and invests time and effort in coaching them to work effectively and grow.
- My leader knows the strengths and weaknesses of his direct reports.
- My leader gives autonomy and encourages them to take on personally challenging and demanding tasks.
- My leader encourages problem solving, innovative ideas and proposals, and the development of his vision for his area and the wider vision for the company.
- My leader encourages a critical faculty and a broad perspective and encourages the challenging of existing practices, assumptions and policies.
- My leader has an awareness of one’s own feelings and the ability to recognise and deal with them in a way that gives them a sense of control.
- My leader has a degree of confidence in his or her ability to manage emotions and control their impact in the work environment.
- My leader arrives at clear decisions and drives their implementation when presented with incomplete or ambiguous information.
- My leader uses both rational and ‘emotional’ or intuitive perceptions of key issues and implications.
- My leader is aware of the needs and views of others and takes them into account when making decisions and proposing solutions to problems and challenges.
- My leader demonstrates a willingness to think openly about possible solutions to problems and to actively listen to and consider the reactions and contributions of others.
- My leader persuades others to change views based on an understanding of their position and a recognition of the need to listen to this perspective and provide a rationale for change
- My leader has the drive and energy to achieve clear results and make an impact and, also, to balance short- and long-term goals with a capability to pursue demanding goals in the face of rejection or questioning.
- My leader balances the needs of the situation and task with the needs and concerns of the individuals involved.
- My leader demonstrates a clear commitment to the chosen course of action in the face of challenges and matches ‘words and deeds’ in encouraging others to support the chosen direction.
- My leader demonstrates a personal commitment to finding an ethical solution to a difficult business issue or problem.
- My leader has the ability to trigger a change in enterprise in the heat and power industry.
- My leader has had a significant impact on increasing networking with other enterprise.
- My leader has had a significant impact on increasing effectiveness in enterprise in the heat and power industry.
- My leader has had a significant impact on increasing profitability in enterprise in the heat and power industry.
- We are satisfied with facilities provided by our leader.
- We are satisfied with the fairness demonstrated by our leader.
- We are satisfied with the promises that always delivered by our leader.
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|Variables||No. of Items||References||Cronbach’s α|
|Intellectual competencies||1. Critical analysis and self-vision||7||The Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ) Dulewicz, Higgs (2004) ||0.83|
|2. Strategic perspective||4|
|Managerial competencies||1. Communication, managing resources, and achieving||5||The Leadership Dimensions Questionnaire (LDQ) Dulewicz, Higgs (2004) ||0.81|
|2. Developing team||2|
|3. Empowering team||4|
|Socio-emotional competencies||1. Self-awareness and intuitiveness||4||The leadership dimensions questionnaire (LDQ) Dulewicz, Higgs (2004) ||0.76|
|3. Influence (including motivation and conscientiousness)||5|
|4.0 Leadership effectiveness||1. Managers’ performance||4||Ansari et al. (2004) ||0.82|
|2. Workers’ satisfaction||3||Mulki et al. (2015) |
|Firm Level||CHP Plant age||≤20 (14.3%)|
|Legal form||Joint-stock company (71.4%)|
|Limited liability company (28.6%)|
|Technical data||Thermal power:|
|≤380 MWt (42.9%)|
|390–475 MWt (42.9%)|
|>475 MWt (14.2%)|
|≤100 MWe (42.8%)|
|>100 MWe (57.2%)|
|Respondent Level||Age||Mean: 58.3 years|
|Position||Management positions (68%)|
|Other employees (32%)|
|Working experience of respondents||≤10 years (19%)|
|More than 20 years (52%)|
|Outcome and Conditions||Coding||Threshold Values|
|Full Non-Membership (0.05)||Crossover Point (0.5)||Full Membership (0.95)|
|4.0 Leadership effectiveness||L||0.23||2.34||4.31|
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Kwiotkowska, A.; Gajdzik, B.; Wolniak, R.; Vveinhardt, J.; Gębczyńska, M. Leadership Competencies in Making Industry 4.0 Effective: The Case of Polish Heat and Power Industry. Energies 2021, 14, 4338. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144338
Kwiotkowska A, Gajdzik B, Wolniak R, Vveinhardt J, Gębczyńska M. Leadership Competencies in Making Industry 4.0 Effective: The Case of Polish Heat and Power Industry. Energies. 2021; 14(14):4338. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144338Chicago/Turabian Style
Kwiotkowska, Anna, Bożena Gajdzik, Radosław Wolniak, Jolita Vveinhardt, and Magdalena Gębczyńska. 2021. "Leadership Competencies in Making Industry 4.0 Effective: The Case of Polish Heat and Power Industry" Energies 14, no. 14: 4338. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144338