- The deployment of grid-scale ESS, consisting of Li-ion batteries and Compressed Air Energy Storage technology (CAES),
- The flexible use of electricity demand associated with the water supply sector, namely by optimum scheduling of the Reverse Osmosis Desalination (ROD) plant operation,
- The flexibility that a large number of EVs could provide under the V2G concept.
2. A Glance at the Energy Transition on Islands
3. Porto Santo Island
4. Proposed Means for a 100% RES-Based Energy Supply
- The Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and the Compressed Air Energy Storage system (CAES) are the considered energy storage means,
- Deployment of a considerable number of EVs under the V2G concept,
- Controlling the load of the existing Reverse Osmosis Desalination (ROD) plant.
4.1. Energy Storage Systems
- To absorb the available RES during low-demand periods and back up the power generation during peak demand periods or when the RES are not available. Therefore, a high-power rating (kW) and discharge duration (kWh) are the necessary attributes associated with the ESS. This kind of service is carried mainly through Pump Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) technologies on large scales .
- Smoothing the net-demand is also particularly important for isolated grids, where system operators often need to keep diesel generators online at less efficient operating levels to mitigate unforeseen ramps in RES generation. If the ESS can tackle the RES variations, the operators can better manage the diesel generators, significantly reducing fuel usage and GHG emissions. Usually, an advanced lead-acid battery or lithium-iron-phosphate is used for this specific service. For instance, the 11 MW/4.3 MWh Li-ion Hawaii wind smoothing project is an example of this kind. While installing storage only to provide RES smoothing is not relevant in most applications; this can, however, be an added value when stacked with other services and other ESS technologies . The island of Graciosa that belongs to the Azores archipelago is another example of an island community that has implemented RES with a BESS, drastically cutting its diesel consumption .
4.2. Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant & DSM
4.3. Transport Electrification & the Potential Flexibility
5. 100% RES-Based Energy Supply System
- Some curtailment associated with RES is inevitable;
- As shown in Figure 4, the wind is less available during the summertime when the demand is higher; hence an increase in solar production was necessary. On the other hand, apart from the minor PV production during winter, the solar output is also limited to the daylight; therefore, an increase in wind production was desirable since wind availability on the island presents a more consistent availability during both the day and the night;
- With the substantial losses associated with the round-trip charging/discharging ICAES, a considerable amount of added RES would be wasted;
- Ultimately, the significant number of EVs on the island would increase the total demand substantially.
- : Electricity Demand during (excluding the EVs’ and RO’s demand);
- : Water Demand (m3) during ;
- : Desalinated-Water Production (m3) during ;
- : Power supplied by type , during ,
- (S = Solar, W = Wind, and TP = Thermal Powerplant);
- : RO desalination plant load (kW) during ;
- : Desalinated water-tank level (m3) during ;
- : Discharged power (kW) of storage unit , during
- : Charging power (kW) of storage unit , during
- : State-of-Charge (SoC) of storage unit , at time
- : Consumption (kWh) of EV, during
- : Charging outlet power (kW) of EV , during
- : Discharging outlet power (kW) of EV , during
- : State-of-Charge (SoC) of EV , at time
- : Curtailed RES power (kW) at time
- : Cost function
5.2. Modeling Electric Vehicles
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|RES||Renewable Energy Resources.|
|TPP||Thermal Power Plant.|
|ESS||Energy Storage System.|
|BESS||Battery based Energy Storage|
|ROD||Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant.|
|CAES||Compressed Air Energy Storage System.|
|DSF||Demand Side Flexibility.|
|EEM||Empresa da Electricidade da Madeira, the local electricity company.|
(Visitors per Year)
|Energy Transition Status||Installed RES Capacity (MWp)||Resources & Technologies||Interconnection||Transport Electrification||Electricity Price|
|Porto Santo ||Portugal||42||5500||100,000||Middle||>3.10||Oil, diesel, petrol, gas, solar, wind, BESS, APL *||No||Starting||0.25|
|Greece||61||500||13,000||Advanced||1.00||Diesel, wind, solar, BESS, microgrid||Yes||N/A||0.23|
|Pantelleria||Italy||84||7759||56,000||Starting||~||Diesel, sea waves, solar, wind||No||N/A||0.27|
|Ameland||Netherlands||268||3683||550,000||+Advanced||>6.10||Solar, solar-heating, fuel-cell, gas, H2, CHP, AEPT **, APL||Yes||+Advanced||0.20|
|Ireland||46||1300||400,000||Middle||<0.5||Oil, gas, mini-solar, CHP, heat-pumps, considerable EVs, APL, AEC ***.||Yes||Advanced||0.29|
|Gigha||The UK||14||160||10,000||Advanced||n/a||Oil, diesel, gas, wood, solar-heating, wind, AEC||Yes||Starting||0.27|
|Denmark||112||3724||400,000||+Advanced||23||Wind, biomass, solar heating, biogas fuel, EVs, AEC||Yes||Advanced||0.34|
|El Hierro |
|Spain||268||11,000||8000||Advanced||11.5||Diesel, Wind, reverse-hydro||No||Starting||0.25|
|Annual Production (MWh)||PV|
|Annual Production (MWh)||BESS|
|Number of EVs|
|Simulation Period||Scenarios||Number of EVs||ICAES|
|Li-ion BESS (MW/MWh)||Losses (MWh)||Total Demand|
(1000 × km)
|ROD Consumption (MWh)||Desalinated Water (1000 × m3)||RES’s Share (%)||Curtailed RES (%)||TPP ‘s Share (%)||Mix Generation GWP100 (ton CO2 eq)|
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