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Article

Online Synthesis of an Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Reference Trajectory for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus

Department of Robotics and Automation of Manufacturing Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10002 Zagreb, Croatia
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Academic Editors: Ivan Arsie, Pierpaolo Polverino, Byoung Kuk Lee and Hugo Morais
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3168; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113168
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 8 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 28 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Control of Hybrid Vehicles)
The powertrain efficiency of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) can be increased by effectively using the engine along the electric motor to gradually discharge the battery throughout a driving cycle. This sets the requirement of the optimal shaping of the battery state-of-charge (SoC) reference trajectory. The paper deals with the online synthesis of the optimal SoC reference trajectory, which inherently includes adaptive features in relation to the prediction of upcoming driving cycle features such as the trip distance, the road grade profile, the mean vehicle velocity and the mean demanded power. The method performs iteratively, starting from an offline-synthesized SoC reference trajectory obtained based on dynamic programming (DP) control variable optimization results. The overall PHEV control strategy incorporating the proposed online SoC reference trajectory synthesis method is verified against the DP benchmark and different offline synthesis methods. For this purpose, a model of a PHEV-type city bus is used and simulated over a wide range of driving cycles and conditions including varying road grade and low-emission zones (LEZ). View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; control; optimization; dynamic programming; battery state-of-charge trajectory; low-emission zones; varying road grade plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; control; optimization; dynamic programming; battery state-of-charge trajectory; low-emission zones; varying road grade
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soldo, J.; Škugor, B.; Deur, J. Online Synthesis of an Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Reference Trajectory for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus. Energies 2021, 14, 3168. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113168

AMA Style

Soldo J, Škugor B, Deur J. Online Synthesis of an Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Reference Trajectory for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus. Energies. 2021; 14(11):3168. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soldo, Jure, Branimir Škugor, and Joško Deur. 2021. "Online Synthesis of an Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Reference Trajectory for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric City Bus" Energies 14, no. 11: 3168. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113168

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