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Review

Application of LCA to Determine Environmental Impact of Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Panels—State-of-the-Art

1
Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 213, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Renno
Energies 2021, 14(11), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113143
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 24 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section A2: Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Systems)
Photovoltaic systems represent a leading part of the market in the renewable energies sector. Contemporary technology offers possibilities to improve systems converting sun energy, especially for the efficiency of modules. The paper focuses on current concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) technologies, presenting data for solar cells and modules working under lab conditions as well as in a real environment. In this paper, we consider up-to-date solutions for two types of concentrating photovoltaic systems: high-concentration photovoltaics (HCPV) and low-concentration photovoltaics (LCPV). The current status of CPV solar modules was complemented by the preliminary results of new hybrid photovoltaic technology achieving records in efficiency. Compared to traditional Si-PV panels, CPV modules achieve greater conversion efficiency as a result of the concentrator optics applied. Specific CPV technologies were described in terms of efficiency, new approaches of a multijunction solar cell, a tracking system, and durability. The results of the analysis prove intensive development in the field of CPV modules and the potential of achieving record system efficiency. The paper also presents methods for the determination of the environmental impact of CPV during the entire life cycle by life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis and possible waste management scenarios. Environmental performance is generally assessed based on standard indicators, such as energy payback time, CO2 footprint, or GHG emission. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaics; concentrating photovoltaics CPV; life cycle assessment LCA; end-of-life CPV photovoltaics; concentrating photovoltaics CPV; life cycle assessment LCA; end-of-life CPV
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ziemińska-Stolarska, A.; Pietrzak, M.; Zbiciński, I. Application of LCA to Determine Environmental Impact of Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Panels—State-of-the-Art. Energies 2021, 14, 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113143

AMA Style

Ziemińska-Stolarska A, Pietrzak M, Zbiciński I. Application of LCA to Determine Environmental Impact of Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Panels—State-of-the-Art. Energies. 2021; 14(11):3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ziemińska-Stolarska, Aleksandra, Monika Pietrzak, and Ireneusz Zbiciński. 2021. "Application of LCA to Determine Environmental Impact of Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Panels—State-of-the-Art" Energies 14, no. 11: 3143. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14113143

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