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Open AccessReview

Organic Carbonate Production Utilizing Crude Glycerol Derived as By-Product of Biodiesel Production: A Review

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Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor, Malaysia
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Chemical Engineering Department, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
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Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan
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Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(6), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13061483
Received: 5 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Processing for Biofuels, Bioenergy and Chemicals)
As a promising alternative renewable liquid fuel, biodiesel production has increased and eventually led to an increase in the production of its by-product, crude glycerol. The vast generation of glycerol has surpassed the market demand. Hence, the crude glycerol produced should be utilized effectively to increase the viability of biodiesel production. One of them is through crude glycerol upgrading, which is not economical. A good deal of attention has been dedicated to research for alternative material and chemicals derived from sustainable biomass resources. It will be more valuable if the crude glycerol is converted into glycerol derivatives, and so, increase the economic possibility of the biodiesel production. Studies showed that glycerol carbonate plays an important role, as a building block, in synthesizing the glycerol oligomers at milder conditions under microwave irradiation. This review presents a brief outline of the physio-chemical, thermodynamic, toxicological, production methods, reactivity, and application of organic carbonates derived from glycerol with a major focus on glycerol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), as a green chemical, for application in the chemical and biotechnical field. Research gaps and further improvements have also been discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: crude glycerol; glycerol carbonate; dimethyl carbonate; microwave irradiation; reaction kinetics crude glycerol; glycerol carbonate; dimethyl carbonate; microwave irradiation; reaction kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nomanbhay, S.; Ong, M.Y.; Chew, K.W.; Show, P.-L.; Lam, M.K.; Chen, W.-H. Organic Carbonate Production Utilizing Crude Glycerol Derived as By-Product of Biodiesel Production: A Review. Energies 2020, 13, 1483.

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