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Article

Cost Optimization of Wastewater and Septage Treatment Process

1
Faculty of Building Services, Hydro and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 20 Nowowiejska St., 00-653 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Cardinal Wyszyński University in Warsaw, 1/3 Wóycickiego St., 01-938 Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science, Bialystok University of Technology, 45E Wiejska St., 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6406; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236406
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 29 November 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery)
Analysis of the current knowledge has revealed the lack of a method for increasing the cost-effectiveness of wastewater and septage treatment in plants overloaded by contamination. This was the premise for undertaking research on the process of septage pre-treatment in a subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland (SS-VF) prior to its input into the biological section of a municipal treatment plant. In previous research the authors have indicated that this allows for a significant reduction in the value of pollution indicators. The objective of this paper is to assess the cost-effectiveness of this process by means of an optimization model. The decision variable was the coefficient of septage stream distribution into the quantity directed to the SS-VF bed in relation to its total quantity. The optimization criterion was the minimization of the expected annual cost of wastewater and septage treatment. Verification of the model has shown that it is reasonable to subject all septage to the pre-treatment in a SS-VF bed for small wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) located in rural areas. The bigger the septage pollution load is, the greater the reduction in the treatment costs. The proposed solution is less cost-effective in urban areas, where the construction of a SS-VF bed requires land purchase and additional costs of its adjustment. Optimization results largely depend on the cost function, so it is important to build it on reliable local data. View Full-Text
Keywords: cost optimization; wastewater treatment; septage treatment; vertical flow constructed wetland cost optimization; wastewater treatment; septage treatment; vertical flow constructed wetland
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karolinczak, B.; Miłaszewski, R.; Dąbrowski, W. Cost Optimization of Wastewater and Septage Treatment Process. Energies 2020, 13, 6406. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236406

AMA Style

Karolinczak B, Miłaszewski R, Dąbrowski W. Cost Optimization of Wastewater and Septage Treatment Process. Energies. 2020; 13(23):6406. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karolinczak, Beata, Rafał Miłaszewski, and Wojciech Dąbrowski. 2020. "Cost Optimization of Wastewater and Septage Treatment Process" Energies 13, no. 23: 6406. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236406

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