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Article

In-Situ Stress Measurements at the Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Site

1
Energy & Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5842; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215842
Received: 16 August 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelings and Analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing in Reservoirs)
A scientific injection campaign was conducted at the Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) site in 2017 and 2019. The testing included pump-in/shut-in, pump-in/flowback, and step rate tests. Various methods have been employed to interpret the in-situ stress from the test dataset. This study focuses on methods to interpret the minimum in-situ stress from step rate, pump-in/extended shut-in tests data obtained during the stimulation of two zones in Well 58-32. This well was drilled in low-permeability granitoid. A temperature of 199 °C was recorded at the well’s total depth of 2297 m relative to the rotary Kelly bushing (RKB). The lower zone (Zone 1) consisted of 46 m of the openhole at the toe of the well. Fractures in the upper zone (Zone 2) were stimulated between 2123–2126 m measured depths (MD) behind the casing. The closure stress gradient variation depended on the depth and the injection chronology. The closure stress was found to increase with the pumping rate/volume. This stress variation could indicate that poroelastic effects (“back stress”) and the presence of adjacent natural fractures may play an important role in the interpretation of fracture closure stress. Further, progressively increasing local total stresses may, consequently, have practical applications when moderate volumes of fluid are injected in a naturally fractured or high-temperature reservoir. The alternative techniques that use pump-in/flowback tests and temperature signatures provide a valuable perspective view of the in-situ stress measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: in-situ stress; Enhanced geothermal system (EGS); FORGE; DFIT in-situ stress; Enhanced geothermal system (EGS); FORGE; DFIT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xing, P.; McLennan, J.; Moore, J. In-Situ Stress Measurements at the Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Site. Energies 2020, 13, 5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215842

AMA Style

Xing P, McLennan J, Moore J. In-Situ Stress Measurements at the Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Site. Energies. 2020; 13(21):5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215842

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xing, Pengju, John McLennan, and Joseph Moore. 2020. "In-Situ Stress Measurements at the Utah Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) Site" Energies 13, no. 21: 5842. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215842

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