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Article

Energy Harvesting by Waste Acid/Base Neutralization via Bipolar Membrane Reverse Electrodialysis

Engineering Department, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 6, 90128 Palermo, Italy
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Energies 2020, 13(20), 5510; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205510
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Membrane Technologies for Energy Production)
Bipolar Membrane Reverse Electrodialysis (BMRED) can be used to produce electricity exploiting acid-base neutralization, thus representing a valuable route in reusing waste streams. The present work investigates the performance of a lab-scale BMRED module under several operating conditions. By feeding the stack with 1 M HCl and NaOH streams, a maximum power density of ~17 W m−2 was obtained at 100 A m−2 with a 10-triplet stack with a flow velocity of 1 cm s−1, while an energy density of ~10 kWh m−3 acid could be extracted by a complete neutralization. Parasitic currents along feed and drain manifolds significantly affected the performance of the stack when equipped with a higher number of triplets. The apparent permselectivity at 1 M acid and base decreased from 93% with the five-triplet stack to 54% with the 38-triplet stack, which exhibited lower values (~35% less) of power density. An important role may be played also by the presence of NaCl in the acidic and alkaline solutions. With a low number of triplets, the added salt had almost negligible effects. However, with a higher number of triplets it led to a reduction of 23.4–45.7% in power density. The risk of membrane delamination is another aspect that can limit the process performance. However, overall, the present results highlight the high potential of BMRED systems as a productive way of neutralizing waste solutions for energy harvesting. View Full-Text
Keywords: pH gradient; waste to energy; ion-exchange membrane; wastewater valorization; controlled neutralization pH gradient; waste to energy; ion-exchange membrane; wastewater valorization; controlled neutralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaffora, A.; Culcasi, A.; Gurreri, L.; Cosenza, A.; Tamburini, A.; Santamaria, M.; Micale, G. Energy Harvesting by Waste Acid/Base Neutralization via Bipolar Membrane Reverse Electrodialysis. Energies 2020, 13, 5510. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205510

AMA Style

Zaffora A, Culcasi A, Gurreri L, Cosenza A, Tamburini A, Santamaria M, Micale G. Energy Harvesting by Waste Acid/Base Neutralization via Bipolar Membrane Reverse Electrodialysis. Energies. 2020; 13(20):5510. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205510

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaffora, Andrea, Andrea Culcasi, Luigi Gurreri, Alessandro Cosenza, Alessandro Tamburini, Monica Santamaria, and Giorgio Micale. 2020. "Energy Harvesting by Waste Acid/Base Neutralization via Bipolar Membrane Reverse Electrodialysis" Energies 13, no. 20: 5510. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205510

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