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Open AccessArticle

The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging

1
RISE ETC (Energy Technology Centre) AB, Box 726, S-941 28 Piteå, Sweden
2
Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology, S-971 87 Luleå, Sweden
3
Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB), S-971 28 Luleå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5386; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205386
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 3 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass and Waste)
Combustion-generated fly ash particles in combination with the particles arising from the disintegration of iron-ore pellets, could give rise to the build-up of deposits on the refractory linings of the induration facility. Due to climate change and other environmental issues, there is a desire to cut down on use of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the feasibility of replacing coal with less carbon-intensive alternatives such as upgraded biomass, e.g., biochar and pyrolysis bio-oil. While the combustion of biomass can be carbon-neutral, the effects of biomass ash upon slagging during the iron-ore pelletizing process in a grate-kiln setup is unknown. In the present study, the effect of the interaction between the pellet dust and biomass-ash upon melt formation and the viscosity of the resulting melt, which can collectively affect melt-induced slagging, was theoretically assessed. The slagging potential of 15 different biomass fuels, suitable for the pelletizing process, was quantified and compared with one another and a reference high-rank coal using a thermodynamically derived slagging index. The replacement of coal with biomass in the pelletizing process is a cumbersome and challenging task which requires extensive and costly field measurements. Therefore, given the wide-ranging nature of the biomasses investigated in this study, a prescreening theoretical approach, such as the one employed in the present work, could narrow down the list, facilitate the choice of fuel/s, and help reduce the costs of the subsequent experimental investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron-ore pelletizing; pellet dust; slagging/deposition; fuel-ash; thermochemical equilibrium calculations iron-ore pelletizing; pellet dust; slagging/deposition; fuel-ash; thermochemical equilibrium calculations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sefidari, H.; Lindblom, B.; Nordin, L.-O.; Wiinikka, H. The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging. Energies 2020, 13, 5386. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205386

AMA Style

Sefidari H, Lindblom B, Nordin L-O, Wiinikka H. The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging. Energies. 2020; 13(20):5386. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205386

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sefidari, Hamid; Lindblom, Bo; Nordin, Lars-Olof; Wiinikka, Henrik. 2020. "The Feasibility of Replacing Coal with Biomass in Iron-Ore Pelletizing Plants with Respect to Melt-Induced Slagging" Energies 13, no. 20: 5386. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205386

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