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Open AccessArticle

Aggregation of Households in Community Energy Systems: An Analysis from Actors’ and Market Perspectives

1
Department of Energy Systems Analysis, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Curiestraße 4, 70563 Stuttgart, Germany
2
School of Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Saarbrücken (HTW SAAR), Goebenstr. 40, 66117 Saarbrücken, Germany
3
Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics, Ruhr University Bochum (RUB), 44801 Bochum, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5154; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195154
Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 3 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Economics and Innovation of Smart Cities)
In decentralized energy systems, electricity generated and flexibility offered by households can be organized in the form of community energy systems. Business models, which enable this aggregation at the community level, will impact on the involved actors and the electricity market. For the case of Germany, in this paper different aggregation scenarios are analyzed from the perspective of actors and the market. The main components in these scenarios are the Community Energy Storage (CES) technology, the electricity tariff structure, and the aggregation goal. For this evaluation, a bottom-up community energy system model is presented, in which the households and retailer are the key actors. In our model, we distinguish between the households with inflexible electricity load and the flexible households that own a heat pump or Photovoltaic (PV) storage systems. By using a game-theoretic approach and modeling the interaction between the retailer and households as a Stackelberg game, a community real-time pricing structure is derived. To find the solution of the modeled Stackelberg game, a genetic algorithm is implemented. To analyze the impact of the aggregation scenarios on the electricity market, a “Market Alignment Indicator” is proposed. The results show that under the considered regulatory framework, the deployment of a CES can increase the retailer’s operational profits while improving the alignment of the community energy system with the signals from the electricity market. Depending on the aggregation goal of the retailer, the implementation of community real-time pricing could lead to a similar impact. Moreover, such a tariff structure can lead to financial benefits for flexible households. View Full-Text
Keywords: decentralized energy system; energy community; community energy storage; community energy system; game-theory; Stackelberg decentralized energy system; energy community; community energy storage; community energy system; game-theory; Stackelberg
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarfarazi, S.; Deissenroth-Uhrig, M.; Bertsch, V. Aggregation of Households in Community Energy Systems: An Analysis from Actors’ and Market Perspectives. Energies 2020, 13, 5154. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195154

AMA Style

Sarfarazi S, Deissenroth-Uhrig M, Bertsch V. Aggregation of Households in Community Energy Systems: An Analysis from Actors’ and Market Perspectives. Energies. 2020; 13(19):5154. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195154

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarfarazi, Seyedfarzad; Deissenroth-Uhrig, Marc; Bertsch, Valentin. 2020. "Aggregation of Households in Community Energy Systems: An Analysis from Actors’ and Market Perspectives" Energies 13, no. 19: 5154. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195154

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