# Grid-Connected PV Generation System—Components and Challenges: A Review

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{2}emission reductions.

## 2. Characteristics of Photovoltaic (PV)

## 3. Topology of DC-DC Converter for GPV System

## 4. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

## 5. MPPT Control Strategy

#### 5.1. Hill Climbing (HC)

#### 5.2. Perturbation and Observation (P&O)

_{1}to P

_{2}within one sampling period, the operating point will move from A to C instead of A to B. This represents an increase in power and the perturbation is kept the same. Consequently, the operating point diverges from the MPP and will keep diverging if the irradiation steadily increases and vice versa. The power loss of PV modules will increase and therefore, the efficiency of the PV system eventually will fall.

#### 5.3. Modify P&O

#### 5.4. Incremental Conductance (INC)

#### 5.5. Fractional Open-Circuit Voltage (FOCV)

#### 5.6. Fractional Short-Circuit Current (FSCC)

#### 5.7. Fuzzy Logic (FL), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Other Algorithms

## 6. Inverter

## 7. Line Filter and Coupling Transformer

## 8. Grid Synchronization

#### 8.1. Control Mechanism for GPV System

#### 8.2. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)

## 9. Islanding Detection Methods

## 10. Standards and Guidelines

## 11. Future Key Challenges

## 12. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 4.**PV module efficiency chart [16].

**Figure 14.**Path of ground leakage current in transformer-less GPV System [75].

**Figure 18.**The general structure of the three-phase GPV generation system with transformation blocks.

Parameters | 1st Review Paper [12] | 2nd Review Paper [13] | 3rd Review Paper [14] |
---|---|---|---|

Scope of the review | 1st paper covers almost similar in content and structure. Details analysis on each section of GPV generation system. | 2nd review paper mostly focused on the modeling of the PV, MPPT methods, converter’s topologies and control algorithms. | 3rd paper presents a review of the recent technological development and trends in the GPV generation system. |

Advantages | 1st Paper emphasis on prevailing technology along with the techno-economic comparison of commercial available components in the market. | The authors highlight the importance of continuous research in the field of material and power electronics technologies which able to reduce overall cost and increases the system efficiencies. | The main intention of 3rd paper are on the economic growing of GPV generation system as well as the technical challenges posed by mass proliferation. |

Drawbacks | Details study on PV cell development is not covered. Moreover, it does not stated the recent and future challenges faced by the GPV generation system. In addition to that, there is no mention on fire protection and disposable standard. | Recent update on PV cell, MPPT technique not well reported. The description on the types of filters, switching techniques, grid synchronization and islanding detection methods were also missing. | 3rd paper merely focuses on PV installation cost and smart inverters. It is totally lack of details explanation on the other sub-topics within the GPV generation system. |

Focus Group | Young Researcher PV Researcher Project Engineer | Young Researcher PV Researcher Project Engineer | Young Researcher PV Researcher |

MPPT Technique | Parameters | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

PV Array Dependent | Analog or Digital | Convergence Speed | Implementation Complexity | Input Sensors | Tracking Approach | Under Partial Shading Condition | |

HC | No | Both | Slow | Low | V, I | Iteration | Ineffective |

P&O | No | Both | Medium | Low | V, I | Iteration | Ineffective |

INC | No | Digital | Varies | Medium | V, I | Mathematical Calculation | Ineffective |

FOCV | Yes | Both | Medium | Low | V | Constant Parameters | Ineffective |

FSCC | Yes | Both | Medium | Medium | I | Constant Parameters | Ineffective |

RCC | No | Analog | Fast | Medium | V, I | Mathematical Calculation | Ineffective |

A voltage or Current Sweep | Yes | Digital | Slow | High | V, I | Mathematical Calculation | Ineffective |

DC-Link Capacitor Droop | No | Both | Medium | Low | V | Iteration | Ineffective |

The load I or V Maximization | No | Analog | Fast | Low | V, I | Measurement and Comparison | Ineffective |

dP/dV or dP/dI Feedback Control | No | Digital | Fast | Medium | V & I | Mathematical Calculation | Ineffective |

FL | Yes | Digital | Fast | High | Varies | Intelligent Prediction | Partially Effective |

ANN | Yes | Digital | Fast | High | T, G & I | Intelligent Prediction | Partially Effective |

PSO | No | Digital | Fast | High | V & I | Soft Computing | Effective |

GA | No | Digital | Fast | High | Varies | Soft Computing | Effective |

RMO | No | Digital | Fast | Medium | Varies | Soft Computing | Effective |

BSCA | No | Digital | Medium | High | V, I,G,T | Soft Computing | Effective |

ACO | No | Digital | Fast | High | V, I | Soft Computing | Effective |

CS | No | Digital | Fast | High | V | Soft Computing | Effective |

SSA | No | Digital | Fast | High | V, I | Soft Computing | Effective |

GWO | No | Digital | Fast | High | V, I | Soft Computing | Effective |

Parameters | Description |
---|---|

Phase Sequence | The phase sequence or phase rotation of the three-phase inverter must be matching as the phase sequence of the three phases of the grid. |

Voltage Magnitude | The magnitude of the sinusoidal voltage produced by the inverter must be equivalent to the magnitude of the sinusoidal voltage of the grid |

Frequency | The frequency of the sinusoidal voltage produced by the inverter must be equal to the frequency of the sinusoidal voltage of the grid. |

Phase Angle | The phase angle between the sinusoidal voltages produced by the inverter and the sinusoidal voltage generated by the grid must be zero. |

Parameter | The Direction of Power Flow | |
---|---|---|

Phase Difference, $\delta $ | $\delta >0$ | The real power, $P$ flows from inverter to Grid |

$\delta <0$ | The real power, $P$ flows from Grid to Inverter | |

Voltage Magnitude, $V$ | ${V}_{inv}>{V}_{grid}$ | The reactive power, $Q$ flows from Inverter to Grid |

${V}_{inv}<{V}_{grid}$ | The reactive power, $Q$ flows from Grid to Inverter |

Main Components on GPV Generation System | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

PV Module | MPPT | DC-DC Converter | Inverter | Line Filter | Synchronization Control Technique | Coupling Transformer | Interface Impedance |

Material on high energy conversion efficiency and low-cost implementation | The exact and variable step size of Duty Cycle and Voltage. | High gain DC-DC Converters. | DC-AC Ratio Optimization | Impact on power quality, protection, and operation of distribution feeders. | Protection scheme against Islanding, transient fault condition, rapidly changing reactive power demand by grid. | The single-stage transformer-less conversion system. | An optimization technique for Inverter-Grid Interface Impedance. |

Protection against the high intensity of irradiation, fire hazard, haze, and extreme climatic changes | The exact and variable step size of the perturbation period. | Resonant Converters with soft-switching technique. | Three-level neutral point clamp Topologies. | Hybrid Passive Filter configurations. | Supervisor controller to control of multiple distributed generation plants. | High-Frequency (HF) Transformer. | Characteristic of interface impedance for maximum power transfer. |

Potential Induced Degradation (PID) effect | Partially shaded condition. | Multi-level DC-DC Converters. | Multi-level Modular Central Inverter. | Double line frequency pulsating power issue. | Smart grid and smart energy storage system. | Effect of Core Losses and Saturation to Power transfer. | |

Development of advance Sun Tracking PV Panel | Sensor-less MPPT Algorithm. | Multiple Input Multiple Output DC-DC Converters. | Modulation control technique. | Shunt Active Power Filter for Three-phase system. | Control strategy for Unbalanced, distorted and Non-linear load conditions. | Leakage current in Transformer-less system. | |

Booster application to intensify the Irradiation and Temperature | The introduction of artificial intelligence i.e., Heuristic search methods. | Control technique for non-isolated DC-DC Converters. | Single-stage Transformer-less Inverters. | Hybrid Active and Passive Filter configuration. | The introduction of artificial intelligence in the synchronization of the grid-connected PV system. | Study on the Construction and Core Design of Transformer. |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Mohamed Hariri, M.H.; Mat Desa, M.K.; Masri, S.; Mohd Zainuri, M.A.A.
Grid-Connected PV Generation System—Components and Challenges: A Review. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 4279.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174279

**AMA Style**

Mohamed Hariri MH, Mat Desa MK, Masri S, Mohd Zainuri MAA.
Grid-Connected PV Generation System—Components and Challenges: A Review. *Energies*. 2020; 13(17):4279.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174279

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Mohamed Hariri, Muhammad Hafeez, Mohd Khairunaz Mat Desa, Syafrudin Masri, and Muhammad Ammirrul Atiqi Mohd Zainuri.
2020. "Grid-Connected PV Generation System—Components and Challenges: A Review" *Energies* 13, no. 17: 4279.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174279