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Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines

MEtRICs, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(16), 4086;
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends on the Combustion Processes in Spark Ignition Engines)
The recent transport electrification trend is pushing governments to limit the future use of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, the rationale for this strong limitation is frequently not sufficiently addressed or justified. The problem does not seem to lie within the engines nor with the combustion by themselves but seemingly, rather with the rise in greenhouse gases (GHG), namely CO2, rejected to the atmosphere. However, it is frequent that the distinction between fossil CO2 and renewable CO2 production is not made, or even between CO2 emissions and pollutant emissions. The present revision paper discusses and introduces different alternative fuels that can be burned in IC Engines and would eliminate, or substantially reduce the emission of fossil CO2 into the atmosphere. These may be non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia, or biofuels such as alcohols, ethers or esters, including synthetic fuels. There are also other types of fuels that may be used, such as those based on turpentine or even glycerin which could maintain ICEs as a valuable option for transportation. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuels; fuels; synthetic fuels; internal combustion engine; alternative fuels biofuels; fuels; synthetic fuels; internal combustion engine; alternative fuels
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, J.; Brito, F.P. Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines. Energies 2020, 13, 4086.

AMA Style

Martins J, Brito FP. Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines. Energies. 2020; 13(16):4086.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martins, Jorge; Brito, F. P. 2020. "Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines" Energies 13, no. 16: 4086.

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