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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Overdischarge Rate on Thermal Runaway of NCM811 Li-Ion Batteries

by Dong Wang 1,2,3, Lili Zheng 1,2,3,*, Xichao Li 4, Guangchao Du 1,2,3, Zhichao Zhang 1,2,3, Yan Feng 1,2,3, Longzhou Jia 1,2,3 and Zuoqiang Dai 1,2,3,*
College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 260071, China
Engineering Technology Center of Power Integration and Energy Storage System, Qingdao University, Qingdao 260071, China
National and Local Joint Engineering Technology Center for Intelligent Power Integration Technology for Electric Vehicles (Qingdao), Qingdao 260071, China
Energy Storage Business Department, CRRC Qingdao Sifang Rolling Stock Research Institute Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266031, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(15), 3885;
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Management for Electric Vehicles)
Overdischarge often occurs during the use of battery packs, owing to cell inconsistency in the pack. In this study, the overdischarge behavior of 2.9 Ah cylindrical NCM811 [Li(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)O2] batteries in an adiabatic environment was investigated. A higher overdischarge rate resulted in a faster temperature increase in the batteries. Moreover, the following temperatures increased: Tu, at which the voltage decreased to 0 V; Ti, at which the current decreased to 0 A; and the maximum temperature during the battery overdischarge (Tm). The following times decreased: tu, when the voltage decreased from 3 to 0 V, and ti, when the current decreased to 0 A. The discharge capacity of the batteries was 3.06–3.14 Ah, and the maximum discharge depth of the batteries was 105.51–108.27%. Additionally, the characteristic overdischarge behavior of the batteries in a high-temperature environment (55 °C) was investigated. At high temperatures, the safety during overdischarging decreased, and the amount of energy released during the overdischarge phase and short-circuiting decreased significantly. Shallow overdischarging did not significantly affect the battery capacity recovery. None of the overdischarging cases caused fires, explosions, or thermal runaway in the batteries. The NCM811 batteries achieved good safety performance under overdischarge conditions: hence, they are valuable references for battery safety research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Li-ion battery safety; overdischarge; thermal runaway; adiabatic conditions Li-ion battery safety; overdischarge; thermal runaway; adiabatic conditions
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Wang, D.; Zheng, L.; Li, X.; Du, G.; Zhang, Z.; Feng, Y.; Jia, L.; Dai, Z. Effects of Overdischarge Rate on Thermal Runaway of NCM811 Li-Ion Batteries. Energies 2020, 13, 3885.

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