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Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on Production, Storage and Utilization

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan
Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
Departemen Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3062;
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrogen Energy)
Ammonia is considered to be a potential medium for hydrogen storage, facilitating CO2-free energy systems in the future. Its high volumetric hydrogen density, low storage pressure and stability for long-term storage are among the beneficial characteristics of ammonia for hydrogen storage. Furthermore, ammonia is also considered safe due to its high auto ignition temperature, low condensation pressure and lower gas density than air. Ammonia can be produced from many different types of primary energy sources, including renewables, fossil fuels and surplus energy (especially surplus electricity from the grid). In the utilization site, the energy from ammonia can be harvested directly as fuel or initially decomposed to hydrogen for many options of hydrogen utilization. This review describes several potential technologies, in current conditions and in the future, for ammonia production, storage and utilization. Ammonia production includes the currently adopted Haber–Bosch, electrochemical and thermochemical cycle processes. Furthermore, in this study, the utilization of ammonia is focused mainly on the possible direct utilization of ammonia due to its higher total energy efficiency, covering the internal combustion engine, combustion for gas turbines and the direct ammonia fuel cell. Ammonia decomposition is also described, in order to give a glance at its progress and problems. Finally, challenges and recommendations are also given toward the further development of the utilization of ammonia for hydrogen storage. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; hydrogen; production; storage; utilization; CO2 free ammonia; hydrogen; production; storage; utilization; CO2 free
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aziz, M.; Wijayanta, A.T.; Nandiyanto, A.B.D. Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on Production, Storage and Utilization. Energies 2020, 13, 3062.

AMA Style

Aziz M, Wijayanta AT, Nandiyanto ABD. Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on Production, Storage and Utilization. Energies. 2020; 13(12):3062.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aziz, Muhammad, Agung Tri Wijayanta, and Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto. 2020. "Ammonia as Effective Hydrogen Storage: A Review on Production, Storage and Utilization" Energies 13, no. 12: 3062.

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