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A Review of the Relation between Household Indoor Temperature and Health Outcomes

Faculty of Engineering (FEUP), University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
ALGORITMI Research Centre, School of Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2881;
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings Energy Efficiency and Innovative Energy Systems)
This paper provides a review of research that addresses the relationship between indoor temperatures and health outcomes, taking into consideration studies that focus heat or cold exposure within the household context. It aims to extend previous research by considering both indoor temperatures from existing housing, and empirical studies that focus on energy efficiency measures and subsequent health impacts. To achieve this aim, a literature review was undertaken, combining engineering and health databases. The review established that, overall, inadequate indoor temperatures are associated with poor health status, whereas energy efficiency measures have been associated to improved indoor temperatures and occupant’s health namely regarding cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health disorders. These health conditions are among the most prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCD). The review also highlighted the need for more empirical studies with an extended timeframe to deal with climate change challenges. It underlined the potential advantages of the convergence between health and energy efficiency studies, for better modelling and planning. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor environment; indoor temperature; health; buildings; elderly; fuel poverty indoor environment; indoor temperature; health; buildings; elderly; fuel poverty
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lima, F.; Ferreira, P.; Leal, V. A Review of the Relation between Household Indoor Temperature and Health Outcomes. Energies 2020, 13, 2881.

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