Next Article in Journal
Demand Response Optimization Model to Energy and Power Expenses Analysis and Contract Revision
Next Article in Special Issue
Barriers and Solutions for Increasing the Integration of Solar Photovoltaic in Kenya’s Electricity Mix
Previous Article in Journal
Analysis of Yearly Effectiveness of a Diaphragm Ground Heat Exchanger Supported by an Ultraviolet Sterilamp
 
 
Article

Catalyst Characteristics and Performance of Silica-Supported Zinc for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Centre for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization (CCDCU), School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Petaling Jaya 47500, Malaysia
4
Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YW, UK
5
School of Information, Systems and Modelling, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112802
Received: 25 April 2020 / Revised: 21 May 2020 / Accepted: 23 May 2020 / Published: 1 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy for Sustainable Future)
The present investigation aimed to study the physicochemical characteristics of supported catalysts comprising various percentages of zinc dispersed over SiO2. The physiochemical properties of these catalysts were surveyed by N2 physisorption (BET), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), H2 temperature-programmed reduction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). In addition, to examine the activity and performance of the catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-oil oxygenated compounds, the experimental reaction runs, as well as stability and durability tests, were performed using 3% Zn/SiO2 as the catalyst. Characterization of silica-supported zinc catalysts revealed an even dispersion of the active site over the support in the various dopings of the zinc. The acidity of the calcinated catalysts elevated clearly up to 0.481 mmol/g. Moreover, characteristic outcomes indicate that elevating the doping of zinc metal led to interaction and substitution of proton sites on the SiO2 surface that finally resulted in an increase in the desorption temperature peak. The experiments were performed at temperature 500 °C, pressure 1 atm; weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 0.32 (h−1); feed flow rate 0.5 (mL/min); and hydrogen flow rate 150 (mL/min). Based on the results, it was revealed that among all the prepared catalysts, that with 3% of zinc had the highest conversion efficiency up to 80%. However, the selectivity of the major products, analyzed by gas chromatography flame-ionization detection (GC-FID), was not influenced by the variation in the active site doping. View Full-Text
Keywords: heterogeneous catalyst; hydrodeoxygenation (HDO); zinc; phenol; bio-oil heterogeneous catalyst; hydrodeoxygenation (HDO); zinc; phenol; bio-oil
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pourzolfaghar, H.; Abnisa, F.; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Aroua, M.K.; Mahlia, T.M.I. Catalyst Characteristics and Performance of Silica-Supported Zinc for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol. Energies 2020, 13, 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112802

AMA Style

Pourzolfaghar H, Abnisa F, Wan Daud WMA, Aroua MK, Mahlia TMI. Catalyst Characteristics and Performance of Silica-Supported Zinc for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol. Energies. 2020; 13(11):2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112802

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pourzolfaghar, Hamed, Faisal Abnisa, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, and Teuku Meurah Indra Mahlia. 2020. "Catalyst Characteristics and Performance of Silica-Supported Zinc for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol" Energies 13, no. 11: 2802. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112802

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop