Due to the increasing use of Electric Vehicles (EVs), the effect of the EV charging power demand on the reliability of the power system infrastructure needs to be addressed. In apartment complexes, which have emerged as a common residential type in metropolitan areas and highly populated districts, high charging demand could result in substantial stress to distribution networks. In this work, the effect of EV charging power demand in an apartment complex on the aging of the Distribution Transformer (DT) is studied. A methodology based on the stochastic characterization of vehicle usage profiles and user charging patterns is developed to obtain realistic EV charging demand profiles. Based on the modeled EV charging profile and the transformer thermal model, the effect of different EV penetration ratios on DT aging for an apartment complex in the Republic of Korea is studied. Results for an EV penetration ratio of up to 30% indicated that DT aging could be accelerated by up to 40%, compared to the case without EV charging. To mitigate this accelerated DT aging caused by EV charging, the effectiveness of two integration approaches of Photovoltaic (PV) sources was studied. Based on a case study that included a realistic PV generation profile, it was demonstrated that a significant contribution to DT reliability could be achieved via the operation of PV sources. A more apparent contribution of PV integration was observed with an energy storage installation at higher EV penetration ratios. At an EV penetration ratio of 30%, a maximum decrease of 41.8% in the loss-of-life probability of the DT was achieved. The effects of different PV integration approaches and power management details on DT aging were also studied. The results demonstrate that the EV charging demand could introduce a significant level of stress to DTs and that this impact can be effectively mitigated by installing PV sources. These observations are expected to contribute toward the effective planning of power system infrastructures that support the design of sustainable cities with the widespread use of EVs.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited