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Article

A Systematic Approach to Predict the Economic and Environmental Effects of the Cost-Optimal Energy Renovation of a Historic Building District on the District Heating System

1
Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
2
Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, 801 76 Gävle, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(1), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010276
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 27 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 6 January 2020
The economic and environmental performance of a district heating (DH) system is to a great extent affected by the size and dynamic behavior of the DH load. By implementing energy efficiency measures (EEMs) to increase a building’s thermal performance and by performing cost-optimal energy renovation, the operation of the DH system will be altered. This study presents a systematic approach consisting of building categorization, life cycle cost (LCC) optimization, building energy simulation and energy system optimization procedures, investigating the profitability and environmental performance of cost-optimal energy renovation of a historic building district on the DH system. The results show that the proposed approach can successfully be used to predict the economic and environmental effects of cost-optimal energy renovation of a building district on the local DH system. The results revealed that the financial gains of the district are between 186 MSEK (23%) and 218 MSEK (27%) and the financial losses for the DH system vary between 117–194 MSEK (5–8%). However, the suggested renovation measures decrease the local and global CO2 emissions by 71–75 metric ton of CO2eq./year (4%) and 3545–3727 metric ton of CO2eq./year (41–43%), respectively. Total primary energy use was decreased from 57.2 GWh/year to 52.0–52.2 GWh/year. View Full-Text
Keywords: LCC optimization; building energy simulation; energy system optimization; energy renovation; historic building district; district heating system LCC optimization; building energy simulation; energy system optimization; energy renovation; historic building district; district heating system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Milić, V.; Amiri, S.; Moshfegh, B. A Systematic Approach to Predict the Economic and Environmental Effects of the Cost-Optimal Energy Renovation of a Historic Building District on the District Heating System. Energies 2020, 13, 276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010276

AMA Style

Milić V, Amiri S, Moshfegh B. A Systematic Approach to Predict the Economic and Environmental Effects of the Cost-Optimal Energy Renovation of a Historic Building District on the District Heating System. Energies. 2020; 13(1):276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Milić, Vlatko, Shahnaz Amiri, and Bahram Moshfegh. 2020. "A Systematic Approach to Predict the Economic and Environmental Effects of the Cost-Optimal Energy Renovation of a Historic Building District on the District Heating System" Energies 13, no. 1: 276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010276

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