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Optimal Scheduling of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Including Time-of-Use Tariff to Minimize Cost and System Stress

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang 65145, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Technology MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam 40450, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1500;
Received: 10 February 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Electric Vehicles)
PDF [4648 KB, uploaded 20 April 2019]


Technological advancement, environmental concerns, and social factors have made plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) popular and attractive vehicles. Such a trend has caused major impacts to electrical distribution systems in terms of efficiency, stability, and reliability. Moreover, excessive power loss, severe voltage deviation, transformer overload, and system blackouts will happen if PEV charging activities are not coordinated well. This paper presents an optimal charging coordination method for a random arrival of PEVs in a residential distribution network with minimum power loss and voltage deviation. The method also incorporates capacitor switching and on-load tap changer adjustment for further improvement of the voltage profile. The meta-heuristic methods, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) and binary grey wolf optimization (BGWO), are employed in this paper. The proposed method considers a time-of-use (ToU) electricity tariff such that PEV users will get more benefits. The random PEV arrival is considered based on the driving pattern of four different regions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, comprehensive analysis is conducted using a modified of IEEE 31 bus system with three different PEV penetrations. The results indicate a promising outcome in terms of cost and the distribution system stress minimization. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in electric vehicle; charging coordination; optimization; time-of-use tariff plug-in electric vehicle; charging coordination; optimization; time-of-use tariff

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Suyono, H.; Rahman, M.T.; Mokhlis, H.; Othman, M.; Illias, H.A.; Mohamad, H. Optimal Scheduling of Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Including Time-of-Use Tariff to Minimize Cost and System Stress. Energies 2019, 12, 1500.

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