Next Article in Journal
Crack Patterns in Heterogenous Rocks Using a Combined Phase Field-Cohesive Interface Modeling Approach: A Numerical Study
Previous Article in Journal
Problems Related to Gasification of Biomass—Properties of Solid Pollutants in Raw Gas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Driving Forces of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Based on Expanded IPAT Decomposition Analysis: Evidence from ASEAN and Four Selected Countries
Article Menu
Issue 6 (March-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2019, 12(6), 964;

Analysis of Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption and Environmental Impacts in European Countries

REQUIMTE/LAQV/ISEP, School of Engineering, P. Porto 4249-015, Portugal
CIETI/ISEP, School of Engineering, P. Porto 4249-015, Portugal
Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, FEI - Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava 1, Slovakia
LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extension of the paper presented in ICEER2018 and published in Energy Procedia, vol. 153.
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [858 KB, uploaded 13 March 2019]   |  


The use of fossil fuels as the main source of energy for most countries has caused several negative environmental impacts, such as global warming and air pollution. Air pollution causes many health problems, causing social and economic negative effects. Worldwide efforts are being made to avoid global warming consequences through the establishment of international agreements that then lead to local policies adapted to the development of each signing nation. In addition, there is a depletion of nonrenewable resources which may be scarce or nonexistent in future generations. The preservation of resources, which is a common goal of the Circular Economy strategy and of sustainable development, is not being accomplished nowadays. In this work, the calculation of indicators and mathematical and statistical analysis were applied to clarify and evidence the trends, provide information for the decision-making process, and increase public awareness. The fact that European countries do not possess abundant reserves of fossil fuels will not change, but the results of this analysis can evolve in the future. In this work, fossil fuel energy consumption, fossil fuel depletion, and their relationship with other variables, such as energy dependence and share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption, were analyzed for 29 European countries. Furthermore, it was possible to conclude that many European countries still depend heavily on fossil fuels. Significant differences were not found in what concerns gross inland consumption per capita when the Kruskal–Wallis test was applied. It was possible to estimate that by 2050 (considering Jazz scenario) it will only remain approximately 14% of oil proven reserves, 72% of coal proven reserves and 18% of gas proven reserves. Given the small reserves of European countries on fossil fuels, if they need to use them, they will fast disappear. View Full-Text
Keywords: fossil fuels; low carbon energy systems; sustainable energy; sustainable development fossil fuels; low carbon energy systems; sustainable energy; sustainable development

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, F.; Felgueiras, C.; Smitkova, M.; Caetano, N. Analysis of Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption and Environmental Impacts in European Countries. Energies 2019, 12, 964.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top