Next Article in Journal
Incidence of Photovoltaics in Cities Based on Indicators of Occupancy and Urban Sustainability
Previous Article in Journal
Thermal Comfort Evaluation of Rooms Installed with STPV Windows
Open AccessReview

Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies, Catalytic Research, Fuel Properties and Performance in Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines

1
Laboratory of Alternative Fuels and Environmental Catalysis (LAFEC), Department of Environmental and Pollution Control Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece
2
Laboratory of Internal Combustion Engines, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences, GR-50100 Kozani, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050809
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
The present investigation provides an overview of the current technology related to the green diesel, from the classification and chemistry of the available biomass feedstocks to the possible production technologies and up to the final fuel properties and their effect in modern compression ignition internal combustion engines. Various biomass feedstocks are reviewed paying attention to their specific impact on the production of green diesel. Then, the most prominent production technologies are presented such as the hydro-processing of triglycerides, the upgrading of sugars and starches into C15–C18 saturated hydrocarbons, the upgrading of bio-oil derived by the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic materials and the “Biomass-to-Liquid” (BTL) technology which combines the production of syngas (H2 and CO) from the gasification of biomass with the production of synthetic green diesel through the Fischer-Tropsch process. For each of these technologies the involved chemistry is discussed and the necessary operation conditions for the maximum production yield and the best possible fuel properties are reviewed. Also, the relevant research for appropriate catalysts and catalyst supports is briefly presented. The fuel properties of green diesel are then discussed in comparison to the European and US Standards, to petroleum diesel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) and, finally their effect on the compression ignition engines are analyzed. The analysis concludes that green diesel is an excellent fuel for combustion engines with remarkable properties and significantly lower emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: green diesel; biofuels; biomass feedstocks; hydro-processing of triglycerides; compression ignition (CI) engines green diesel; biofuels; biomass feedstocks; hydro-processing of triglycerides; compression ignition (CI) engines
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Douvartzides, S.L.; Charisiou, N.D.; Papageridis, K.N.; Goula, M.A. Green Diesel: Biomass Feedstocks, Production Technologies, Catalytic Research, Fuel Properties and Performance in Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. Energies 2019, 12, 809.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop