When buildings become more energy effective, the temperature levels of district heating systems need to be lower to decrease the losses from the distribution system and to keep district heating a competitive alternative on the heating market. For this reason, buildings that are refurbished need to be adapted to suit low-temperature district heating. The aim of this paper is to examine whether four different energy refurbishment packages (ERPs) can be used for lowering the temperature need of a multi-family buildings space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) system as well as to analyse the impact of the DHW circulation system on the return temperature. The results show that for all ERPs examined in this study, the space heating supply temperature agreed well with the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system. The results show that the temperature need of the DHW system will determine the supply temperature of the district heating system. In addition, the amount of days with heating demand decreases for all ERPs, which further increases the influence of the DHW system on the district heating system. In conclusion, the DHW system needs to be improved to enable the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system.
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