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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Domestic Hot Water Systems on District Heating Temperatures

1
School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, 791 88 Falun, Sweden
2
Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umea University, 901 87 Umea, Sweden
3
Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, 581 83 Linkoping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4694; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244694
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 30 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
When buildings become more energy effective, the temperature levels of district heating systems need to be lower to decrease the losses from the distribution system and to keep district heating a competitive alternative on the heating market. For this reason, buildings that are refurbished need to be adapted to suit low-temperature district heating. The aim of this paper is to examine whether four different energy refurbishment packages (ERPs) can be used for lowering the temperature need of a multi-family buildings space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) system as well as to analyse the impact of the DHW circulation system on the return temperature. The results show that for all ERPs examined in this study, the space heating supply temperature agreed well with the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system. The results show that the temperature need of the DHW system will determine the supply temperature of the district heating system. In addition, the amount of days with heating demand decreases for all ERPs, which further increases the influence of the DHW system on the district heating system. In conclusion, the DHW system needs to be improved to enable the temperature levels of a low-temperature district heating system. View Full-Text
Keywords: district heating; energy efficient refurbishment; building simulation; low-temperature heating; domestic hot water district heating; energy efficient refurbishment; building simulation; low-temperature heating; domestic hot water
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Lidberg, T.; Olofsson, T.; Ödlund, L. Impact of Domestic Hot Water Systems on District Heating Temperatures. Energies 2019, 12, 4694.

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