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Open AccessArticle

An Acoustic Source Model for Applications in Low Mach Number Turbulent Flows, Such as a Large-Scale Wind Turbine Blade

by Hui Tang 1,2, Yulong Lei 1,2,* and Xingzhong Li 1,2
1
College of Automotive Engineering, Jilin University, Renmin Street No. 5988, Changchun 130012, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Renmin Street No. 5988, Changchun 130012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4596; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234596
Received: 2 November 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine)
Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine blades is one of the major hindrances for the widespread use of large-scale wind turbines generating green energy. In order to more accurately guide wind turbine blade manufacturers to optimize the blade geometry for aerodynamic noise reduction, an acoustic model that not only understands the relation between the behavior of the sound source and the sound generation, but also accounts for the compressibility effect, was derived by rearranging the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations as a wave equation with a lump of source terms, including the material derivative and square of the velocity divergence. Our acoustic model was applied to low Mach number, weakly compressible turbulent flows around NACA0012 airfoil. For the computation of flow fields, a large-eddy simulation (LES) with the dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid scale (SGS) model and the cubic interpolated pseudo particle (CIP)-combined unified numerical procedure method were conducted. The reproduced turbulent flow around NACA0012 airfoil was in good agreement with the experimental data. For the estimation of acoustic fields, our acoustic model and classical sound source models, such as Lighthill and Powell, were performed using our LES database. The investigation suggested that the derived material derivative of the velocity divergence plays a dominant role as sound source. The distribution of the sources in our acoustic model was consistent with that of the classical sound source models. The sound pressure level (SPL) predicted based on the above-mentioned LES and our newly derived acoustic model was in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The influence of the increase of Mach number on the acoustic field was investigated. Our acoustic source model was verified to be capable of treating the influence of Mach numbers on the acoustic field. View Full-Text
Keywords: large-scale wind turbine balde; computational aeroacoustics; sound source detection; low Mach number turbulent flows; NACA0012 airfoil large-scale wind turbine balde; computational aeroacoustics; sound source detection; low Mach number turbulent flows; NACA0012 airfoil
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Tang, H.; Lei, Y.; Li, X. An Acoustic Source Model for Applications in Low Mach Number Turbulent Flows, Such as a Large-Scale Wind Turbine Blade. Energies 2019, 12, 4596.

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