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Article

Synthesis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Low-Emission Zones and Varying Road Grades

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10002, Croatia
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Energies 2019, 12(22), 4296; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224296
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PHEVs: Latest Advances and Prospects)
The powertrain efficiency for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) can be maximized by gradually discharging the battery in a blended regime, where the engine is regularly used all over the driving cycle. A key step in designing an optimal PHEV control strategy for the blended regime corresponds to synthesis of battery state-of-charge (SoC) reference trajectory. The paper first demonstrates that the optimal SoC trajectory can significantly differ from a typical linear-like shape in the case of varying road grade and presence of low-emission zones (LEZ). Next, dynamic programming (DP)-based optimizations of PHEV control variables are conducted for the purpose of extracting and analyzing optimal SoC trajectory patterns. It is shown that the optimality is closely related to the minimization of SoC trajectory length with respect to travelled distance. This finding is used for SoC reference trajectory synthesis in the presence of LEZ and varying road grades. Finally, the overall PHEV control strategy is applied to a PHEV-type city bus and verified by means of computer simulations in comparison with the DP optimization benchmark. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; control; optimization; dynamic programming; battery state-of-charge trajectory; low-emission zones; variable road grade plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; control; optimization; dynamic programming; battery state-of-charge trajectory; low-emission zones; variable road grade
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soldo, J.; Škugor, B.; Deur, J. Synthesis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Low-Emission Zones and Varying Road Grades. Energies 2019, 12, 4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224296

AMA Style

Soldo J, Škugor B, Deur J. Synthesis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Low-Emission Zones and Varying Road Grades. Energies. 2019; 12(22):4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soldo, Jure, Branimir Škugor, and Joško Deur. 2019. "Synthesis of Optimal Battery State-of-Charge Trajectory for Blended Regime of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the Presence of Low-Emission Zones and Varying Road Grades" Energies 12, no. 22: 4296. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224296

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