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Open AccessArticle

Optimized Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

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Energy Informatics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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Lab of Computer Networks and Communication Systems, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
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Grid Integration, Systems, and Mobility (GISMo), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4059; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214059
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 25 October 2019
All over the world the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially in the transportation sector, becomes more and more important. Electric vehicles will be one of the key factors to mitigate GHG emissions due to their higher efficiency in contrast to internal combustion engine vehicles. On the other hand, uncoordinated charging will put more strain on electrical distribution grids and possible congestions in the grid become more likely. In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncoordinated charging, as well as optimization-based coordination strategies on the voltage stability and phase unbalances of a representative European semi-urban low voltage grid. Therefore, we model the low voltage grid as a three-phase system and take realistic arrival and departure times of the electric vehicle fleet into account. Subsequently, we compare different coordinated charging strategies with regard to their optimization objectives, e.g., cost reduction or GHG emissions reduction. Results show that possible congestion problems can be solved by coordinated charging. Additionally, depending on the objective, the costs can be reduced by more than 50% and the GHG emissions by around 40%. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicles; optimization; grid model; grid integration; coordinated charging electric vehicles; optimization; grid model; grid integration; coordinated charging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spitzer, M.; Schlund, J.; Apostolaki-Iosifidou, E.; Pruckner, M. Optimized Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Distribution Grids. Energies 2019, 12, 4059.

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