Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective
2. Overview of the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM)
- Operational Independence of Elements
- Managerial Independence of Elements
- Evolutionary Development
- Emergent Behavior
- Geographical Distribution of Elements
- Interdisciplinary Study
- Heterogeneity of Systems
- Networks of Systems
- Bulk Generation: Represents generation of electricity in bulk quantities, such as by fossil, nuclear and hydro power plants, off-shore wind farms, large scale solar power plant (i.e., Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)), which are typically connected to the transmission system.
- Transmission: Represents the infrastructure that transports electricity over long distances.
- Distribution: Represents the infrastructure that distributes electricity to customers.
- Distributed Energy Resource (DER): Represents distributed electrical resources directly connected to the public distribution grid, applying small-scale power generation technologies (typically in the range of 3–10 MW). These distributed electrical resources may be directly controlled by a Distribution System Operator (DSO).
- Customer Premises: Host both end users of electricity and producers of electricity. The premises include industrial, commercial and home facilities (e.g., chemical plants, airports, harbors, shopping centers, and homes). In addition, generation in the form of, e.g., PV generation, Electric Vehicles (EV), storage, batteries, micro turbines, etc., are hosted.
- Market: Reflects the market operations possible along the energy conversion chain, e.g., energy trading, mass market, retail market, etc.
- Enterprise: Includes commercial and organizational processes, services and infrastructures for enterprises (utilities, service providers, energy traders, etc.), e.g., asset management, logistics, work force management, staff training, customer relation management, billing, etc.
- Operation: Hosts power system control operation in the respective domain, e.g., Distribution Management Systems (DMS), Energy Management Systems (EMS) in generation and transmission systems, microgrid management systems, virtual power plant management systems (aggregating several DER), and EV fleet charging management systems.
- Station: Represents the areal aggregation level for field level, e.g., for data concentration, functional aggregation, substation automation, local Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, plant supervision, etc.
- Field: Includes equipment to protect, control and monitor the process of the power system, e.g., protection relays, bay controller, and any kind of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) that acquire and use process data from the power system.
- Process: Includes the physical, chemical or spatial transformations of energy (electricity, solar, heat, water, wind, etc.) and the physical equipment directly involved (e.g., generators, transformers, circuit breakers, overhead lines, cables, electrical loads, any kind of sensors and actuators that are part of or directly connected to the process, etc.).
- Business Layer: Provides a business view on the information exchange related to Smart Grids. Regulatory and economic structures can be mapped on this layer.
- Function Layer: Describes services including their relationships from an architectural viewpoint.
- Information Layer: Describes information objects being exchanged and the underlying canonical data models.
- Communication Layer: Describes protocols and mechanisms for the exchange of information between components.
- Component Layer: Physical distribution of all participating components including power system and ICT equipment.
3. Application of the Smart Grid Architecture Model
3.1. Software Support and Tools
3.1.1. SGAM Toolbox
- Computation Independent Model (CIM): The CIM can be interpreted as “System Level” describing a system from its outside perspective, which means focus is put on the delivered functionality rather than on the technology. Please note that the IEC 61970/61968 series [23,24], also known as CIM (Common Information Model), which is an ontology for defining objects and relations to model power system, is indeed a PIM in the sense of MDA.
- Platform Independent Model (PIM): This layer can be seen as “Architecture Level”. It aims at focusing on the decomposition of the system without considering detailed technical aspects of individual components.
- Platform Specific Model (PSM): The PSM describes the technical aspects for realizing the individual components. Thus, it can be seen as Detailed Design Layer.
- Platform Specific Implementation (PSI): This last layer represents the realized implementation. In case of one artifact being realized as software, this can be seen as the source code created.
3.1.2. 3D Visualisation
3.1.3. Power System Automation Language (PSAL)
3.2. European-Funded Projects and Activities
3.2.1. FP7 DISCERN (Distributed Intelligence for Cost-Effective and Reliable Solutions)
- Identify existing interoperability issues in the used systems that implement a particular sub-functionality or functionality. Available standards and standardization gaps for each individual solution can be represented in the SGAM visualization template.
- Describe the real-life physical distribution of the components used in the field (e.g., software based applications, devices and communication elements deployed). In the use case template, it is possible to define which existing and future actors are involved in a functionality, but it is currently not possible to represent how these actors are actually implemented in the physical layer of the system.
- Establish clear relationships between the business use cases and business objectives that explain the benefits derived by the (leader) company with the functionality, the technical functions that are required to realize such functionality, the information exchanges between the individual functions, the standards used for communication and data models that enable the information exchange, and the physical components that implement the technical functions.
- Carry out an impact analysis, analysis for security compliance, find risk elements, compatibility/comparison at DSO level and the future specification of new features.
- Some standard-based formats to exchange items such as use cases, SGAM models, and libraries of terms used in the corresponding descriptions (Actors, Functions, and Requirements);
- Enhanced templates with standards-based XML export functionality to export use cases, SGAM models, and libraries in those standard-based 62559 compliant formats; and
- Web-based repository to store and manage elicited use cases, SGAM models, and libraries, managing access rights and, thus, enabling multi-editing of the defined descriptions.
3.2.2. FP7 ELECTRA IRP (European Liaison on Electricity Committed towards Long-Term Research Activity Integrated Research Programme)
3.2.3. H2020 SmartNet: Smart TSO-DSO Interaction Schemes, Market Architectures and ICT Solutions for the Integration of Ancillary Services from Demand Side Management and Distributed Generation
3.2.4. H2020 TDX-Assist: Coordination of Transmission and Distribution Data Exchanges for Renewables Integration in the European Marketplace through Advanced, Scalable and Secure ICT Systems and Tools
3.2.5. H2020 ERIGrid: European Research Infrastructure Supporting Smart Grid Systems Technology Development, Validation and Roll Out
3.2.6. H2020 TwinPV: Stimulating Scientific Excellence through Twinning in the Quest for Sustainable Energy (TwinPV)
3.3. National-Funded Projects and Activities
3.3.1. Austrian ICT of the Future OpenNES: Open and Interoperable ICT Solution for Integration of Renewables
3.3.2. Austrian ICT of the Future MESSE: Model-Based Engineering and Validation Support for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems
- Specification and use case design: For this phase, a formal specification and use case analysis method is defined. It is based on SGAM, IEC 62559, and PSAL. Various levels of detail can be addressed during the design. High-level use case descriptions as well as more detailed specifications of functionality, communication, and information models are possible. The information defined in this phase act as the main input for the automatic engineering and validation.
- Automated engineering: Based on the specifications and use case design, different types of configurations are being generated. In MESSE, approaches for three different domains are developed: executable code for field devices, ICT configurations and Human–Machine Interface (HMI) configurations. HMI configurations are used to define the layout of visualizations as well as to configure how user actions should be interpreted and executed.
- Automated validation and deployment: Automated testing for software development has been common practice for several years. However, similar approaches for Smart Grid systems are currently missing. In MESSE, a methodology for the automatic testing of Smart Grid systems is being developed. Based on the scenarios and specifications from the engineer, appropriate tests are generated. Apart from pure software testing, tests can be a combination of software, hardware, and simulations. For manual hardware setups, guidelines for the user are generated.
3.3.3. German SINTEG Project Enera: The Next Big Step in the Energy Transition
3.4. Further Projects, Activities, and Applications
- Requirements analysis for Virtual Power Plants (VPP) and their mapping onto standards as IEC 61850 and IEC 61970/61968 ;
- Identification of involved actors, equipment, communications and processes for Electric Vehicles (EV) charging control ;
- ICT planning approach that can be used in combination with distribution network planning processes and tools ;
- Development of a railway energy management system by using the SGAM model and methods ;
- Design of an architecture of a distribution grid automation system focusing on PMU-based monitoring functions accommodating for key dynamic information exchange between TSOs and DSOs ; and
- SGAM-based explanation of Smart Grids in order to present Big Data analytics .
4. Transfer to Other Domains
4.1. Industrial Automation
4.3. Automotive Domain
4.4. Maritime Domain
- Ships and other maritime traffic objects are actors that are at sea; they can be vessels, or cargo or passenger ships.
- The link describes the existing connection between actors from the ship-side to the shore side with telecommunication methods and protocols. This additionally includes actors such as radio towers and transmission masts.
- Actors on the shore are sea ports, docks, halls, and third-parties where ships land or which organize the shiploads.
- All components and systems which can execute a physical action are depicted in the Transport Objects zone, e.g., ship, crane, port, and transmission masts.
- The Sensors and Actuators zone includes all the components that are needed for receiving or sending data, such as antenna, transceiver, ISO 11898, etc.
- Single services are shown in the Technical Services zone, e.g., IEC 61162 and NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) 2000.
- Actors, information objects and protocols for operating and control services are displayed in the Systems zone, e.g., the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS).
- In the zone Operations, the operating and control units from global, regional, national or local perspective are depicted, e.g., the VTS center.
- In the Fields of Activity zone, systems are described which support markets and eco-systems along the maritime domain, e.g., the traffic message broadcast.
4.5. Smart Cities
4.6. Further Adoptions
5. Future Perspectives
5.1. Supporting Tools and Software
5.2. Design and Engineering
5.3. Validation and Testing
5.4. Wide Usage in R&D Projects
- Standard-based formats to design and exchange use cases, SGAM models, and libraries of terms and data;
- Enhanced templates with standards-based XML export functionality to export use cases, SGAM models and libraries following standard-based IEC 62559 compliant formats;
- Web-based repository to store and manage elicited use cases, SGAM models, and libraries, managing access rights and enabling multi-editing of the defined descriptions;
- Automated engineering to the highest degree possible that will be continuously enhanced; and
- Automated validation and deployment through collaborative simulation work possibilities.
6. Discussion, Lessons Learned, and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
|3L||Leader, Learner, Listener|
|ju-RAMI||juristisches Referenzarchitekturmodell Industrie 4.0|
|reqIF||Requirements Interchange Format|
|AAL||Ambient Assisted Living|
|ADM||Architecture Development Method|
|AMI||Advanced Metering Infrastructure|
|API||Application Programming Interface|
|AUTOSAR||AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture|
|BEMS||Building Energy Management System|
|BMVI||Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur|
|CBA||Cost based analysis|
|CEN||Comité Européen de Normalisation|
|CENELEC||European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization|
|CIM||Computational Independent Model|
|CSP||Concentrated Solar Power or Customer Side Participation|
|DER||Distributed Energy Resource|
|DISCERN||Distributed Intelligence for Cost-effective and Reliable Solutions|
|DMS||Distribution Management System|
|DSL||Domain Specific Language|
|DSM||Demand Side Management|
|DSO||Distribution System Operator|
|ELECTRA||European Liaison on Electricity Committed Towards long-term Research Activity|
|EM-ISA||E-Mobility Information System Architecture|
|EMS||Energy Management System|
|EMPOWER||Local Energy Retail Markets for Prosumer Smart Grid Power Services|
|ERIGrid||European Research Infrastructure supporting Smart Grid Systems Technology Development, Validation and Roll Out|
|ERM||Entity Relationship Model|
|ETIP||European Technology and Innovation Platform|
|ETSI||European Telecommunications Standards Institute|
|FINSENY||Future Internet for Smart Energy|
|FMI||Functional Mock-up Interface|
|FP7||Framework Program 7|
|GPL||Generalized Programming Language|
|GSCAM||Generic Smart City Architecture Model|
|GWAC||GridWise Architecture Council|
|HTD||Holistic Test Description|
|HMI||Human Machine Interface|
|ICT||Information and Communication Technology|
|IEC||International Electrotechnical Commission|
|IED||Intelligent Electronic Devices|
|IMO||International Maritime Organization|
|IRR||Internal Rate of Return|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization|
|LCIM||Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model|
|LIC||Logical Interface Class|
|LRM||Logical Reference Model|
|MAF||Maritime Architecture Framework|
|MBSE||Model-Based Systems Engineering|
|MESSE||Model-based Engineering and Validation Support for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems|
|NEMS||Neighborhood Energy Management System|
|NIST||National Institute of Technology|
|NMEA||National Marine Electronics Association|
|Nobel Grid||New Cost Efficient Business Models for Flexible Smart Grids|
|NPV||Net Present Value|
|OEM||Original Equipment Manufacturer|
|OpenNES||Open and Interoperable ICT Solution for Integration of Renewables|
|PAS||Publicly Available Specification|
|PIM||Platform Independent Model|
|PMU||Phasor Measurement Unit|
|PSAL||Power System Automation Language|
|PSI||Platform Specific Implementation|
|PSM||Platform Specific Model|
|PSO||Particle Swarm Optimization|
|QoS||Quality of Service|
|RAMA||Reference Architecture Model Automotive|
|RAMI||Reference Architecture Model for Industry 4.0|
|RAMS||Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety|
|RASSA||Reference Architecture for Secure Smart Grids in Austria|
|RAWG||Reference Architecture Working group|
|R&D||Research and Development|
|RES||Renewable Energy Source|
|REST||Representational State Transfer|
|SCIAM||Smart City Infrastructure Architecture Model|
|SCADA||Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition|
|SGAM||Smart Grid Architecture Model|
|SINTEG||Schaufenster Intelligente Energie|
|SmarterEMC2||Smarter Grid:Empowering SG Market ACtors through Information and Communication Technologies|
|SNET||European Technology and Innovation Platform Smart Networks for Energy Transition|
|SoS||System of Systems|
|SRD||System Reference Document|
|STIX||Structured Threat Information eXpression|
|SysML||System Markup Language|
|TAXII||Trusted Automated eXchange of Indicator Information|
|TC||Test Case or Technical Committee|
|TDX-Assist||Coordination of Transmission and Distribution data eXchanges for renewables integration in the European marketplace through Advanced, Scalable and Secure ICT Systems and Tools|
|TOGAF||The Open Group Architecture Framework|
|TRL||Technology Readiness Level|
|TSO||Transmission System Operator|
|TwinPV||Stimulating scientific excellence through twinning in the quest for sustainable energy|
|UCMR||Use Case Management Repository|
|UML||Unified Modeling Language|
|VPP||Virtual Power Plant|
|VTS||Vessel Traffic Service|
|XML||Extensible Markup Language|
|ZVEI||Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie|
- Farhangi, H. The path of the smart grid. IEEE Power Energy Mag. 2010, 8, 18–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fraune, C. The politics of speeches, votes, and deliberations: Gendered legislating and energy policy-making in Germany and the United States. Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2016, 19, 134–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Birk, A. A Knowledge Management Infrastructure for Systematic Improvement in Software Engineering; Fraunhofer-IRB-Verlag: Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Engel, D. Towards generic domain reference designation: How to learn from smart grid interoperability. DA-Ch Energieinform. 2015, 1, 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Santodomingo, R.; Uslar, M.; Goring, A.; Gottschalk, M.; Nordstrom, L.; Saleem, A.; Chenine, M. SGAM-based methodology to analyse Smart Grid solutions in DISCERN European research project. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), Cavtat, Croatia, 13–16 May 2014; pp. 751–758. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M. Semantic interoperability within the power systems domain. In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Interoperability of Heterogeneous Information Systems IHIS, Bremen, Germany, 31 October–5 November 2005; pp. 39–46. [Google Scholar]
- Smart Grid Coordination Group. Smart Grid Reference Architecture; Technical Report; CEN-CENELEC-ETSI: Brussels, Belgium, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Englert, H.; Uslar, M. Europäisches Architekturmodell für Smart Grids-Methodik und Anwendung der Ergebnisse der Arbeitsgruppe Referenzarchitektur des EU Normungsmandats M/490; Tagungsband VDE-Kongress: Berlin, Germany, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Rittel, H.W.J.; Webber, M.M. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sci. 1973, 4, 155–169. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gottschalk, M.; Uslar, M.; Delfs, C. The Use Case and Smart Grid Architecture Model Approach—The IEC 62559-2 Use Case Template and the SGAM Applied in Various Domains; Springer: Heidelberg, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Reinhard, H.; de Weck, O.L.; Fricke, E.; Vössner, S. Systems Engineering. Grundlagen und Anwendung; Orell Füssli: Zurich, Switzerland, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Maier, M.W. Architecting principles for systems-of-systems. Syst. Eng. 1999, 1, 267–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- DeLaurentis, D. Understanding Transportation as a System-of-Systems Design Problem. In Proceedings of the 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 26–27 September 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M. Energy Informatics: Definition, State-of-the-Art and New Horizons. In Proceedings of the ComForEn 2015—6th Symposium Communications for Energy Systems, OVE-Schriftenreihe Nr. 80 Oesterreichischer Verband fuer Elektrotechnik Austrian Electrotechnical Association, Vienna, Austria, 7 September 2015; Volume 5, pp. 15–26. [Google Scholar]
- Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability. NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 3.0; Technical Report; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2014.
- The GridWise Architecture Council. GridWise Interoperability Context-Setting Framework; Technical Report; NIST: Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2008.
- Uslar, M.; Schulte, J.; Babazadeh, D.; Schlögl, F.; Krüger, C.; Rosinger, M. Simulation: A case for interoperability based on LCIM—The uGrip approach. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), Emden, Germany, 24–26 July 2017; pp. 492–497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lightsey, B. Systems Engineering Fundamentals; Technical Report; Department of Defense—Systems Management College: Fort Belvoir, VA, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- INCOSE International Council on Systems Engineering. Systems Engineering Handbook. A Guide for System Life Cycle Processes and Activities, Version 3; INCOSE International Council on Systems Engineering: San Diego, CA, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- INCOSE Technical Operations. Systems Engineering Vision 2020, Version 2.03; Technical Report; INCOSE: San Diego, CA, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- International Standards Organisation. ISO/IEC/IEEE Systems and Software Engineering—Architecture Description; Technical Report; International Standards Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Soley, R. Model Driven Architecture (MDA); Technical Report; Object Management Group: Needham, MA, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Specht, M.; Rohjans, S.; Trefke, J.; González, J.M. The Common Information Model CIM: IEC 61968/61970 and 62325-A Practical Introduction to the CIM; Springer Science & Business Media: Berlin, Germany, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Specht, M.; Rohjans, S.; Trefke, J.; Gonzalez, J. The Common Information Model CIM—IEC61968/61970/62325 CIM; China Electric Power Press (CEPP): Beijing, China, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Object Management Group. OMG Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML), Superstructure; Technical Report; Object Management Group: Needham, MA, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Object Management Group. OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML) Version 1.2; Technical Report; Object Management Group: Needham, MA, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Neureiter, C. A Domain-Specific, Model Driven Engineering Approach for Systems Engineering in the Smart Grid; MBSE4U—Tim Weilkiens: Hamburg, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- International Standards Organisation. ISO 15288:2015 Systems Engineering—System Life Cycle Processes; Technical Report; International Standards Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- International Standards Organisation. ISO/IEC TR 24748-2 Systems and Software Engineering—Life Cycle Managemen—Part 2: Guide to the Application of ISO/IECO/IEC 15288 (System Life Cycle Processes); Technical Report; International Standards Organisation: Geneva, Switzerland, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Hu, R.; Hu, W.; Chen, Z. Research of smart grid cyber architecture and standards deployment with high adaptability for Security Monitoring. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Sustainable Mobility Applications, Renewables and Technology (SMART), Kuwait City, Kuwait, 23–25 November 2015; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Smart Grid Interoperability Panel—Cyber Security Working Group. NISTIR 7628—Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security Volume 1–3, Revision 2; Technical Report; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2014.
- Neureiter, C.; Eibl, G.; Engel, D.; Schlegel, S.; Uslar, M. A concept for engineering smart grid security requirements based on SGAM models. Comput. Sci.-Res. Dev. 2016, 31, 65–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neureiter, C.; Engel, D.; Uslar, M. Domain specific and model based systems engineering in the smart grid as prerequesite for security by design. Electronics 2016, 5, 24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neureiter, C.; Engel, D.; Trefke, J.; Santodomingo, R.; Rohjans, S.; Uslar, M. Towards Consistent Smart Grid Architecture Tool Support: From Use Cases to Visualization. In Proceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) 2014, Istanbul, Turkey, 12–15 October 2014; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Zanabria, C.; Andrén, F.P.; Strasser, T.I. Comparing Specification and Design Approaches for Power Systems Applications. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE PES Transmission Distribution Conference and Exhibition—Latin America (T&D-LA), Lima, Peru, 18–21 September 2018; pp. 1–5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pröstl Andrén, F.; Strasser, T.; Kastner, W. Engineering Smart Grids: Applying Model-Driven Development from Use Case Design to Deployment. Energies 2017, 10, 374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santodomingo, R.; Göring, A.; Gottschalk, M.; Valdenmayer, G. D2-3.2 Tool Support for Managing Use Cases and SGAM Models; Technical Report; RWE: Essen, Germany, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Santodomingo, R.; Rosinger, M.; Uslar, M. DISCERN D11.1 Functional Description of the Comprehensive Smart Grid Data Repository; RWE: Essen, Germany, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Martini, L.; Brunner, H.; Rodriguez, E.; Caerts, C.; Strasser, T.; Burt, G. Grid of the future and the need for a decentralised control architecture: The web-of-cells concept. Open Access Proc. J. 2017, 2017, 1162–1166. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heussen, K.; Uslar, M.; Tornelli, C. A use case methodology to handle conflicting controller requirements for future power systems. In Proceedings of the 2015 International Symposium on Smart Electric Distribution Systems and Technologies (EDST), Vienna, Austria, 8–11 September 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Heussen, K. Towards Modeling Future Energy Infrastructures—The ELECTRA System Engineering Approach. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 9–12 October 2016; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Rosinger, C.; Schlegel, S.; Santodomingo-Berry, R. Aligning IT Architecture Analysis and Security Standards for Smart Grids. In Advances and New Trends in Environmental and Energy Informatics; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2016; pp. 115–134. [Google Scholar]
- Syed, M.H.; Guillo-Sansano, E.; Blair, S.M.; Burt, G.; Strasser, T.; Brunner, H.; Gehrke, O.; Rodríguez-Seco, J.E. Laboratory infrastructure driven key performance indicator development using the smart grid architecture model. Open Access Proc. J. 2017, 2017, 1866–1870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gerard, H.; Rivero, E.; Six, D. Basic Schemes for TSO-DSO Coordination and Ancillary Services Provision, D1.3; Technical Report; SmartNet Consortium: San Jose, CA, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Horsmanheimo, K.-T.; Kuusela, T.; Dall, J.; Pröstl, A.; Stephan, K.; Baut, G. ICT Architecture Design Specification, D3.2; Technical Report; SmartNet Consortium Homepage: San Jose, CA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Strasser, T.; Pröstl Andren, F.; Widl, E.; Lauss, G.; Jong, E.D.; Calin, M.; Sosnina, M.; Khavari, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Kotsampopoulos, P.; et al. An Integrated Pan-European Research Infrastructure for Validating Smart Grid Systems. Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik 2018, 135, 616–622. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blank, M.; Lehnhoff, S.; Heussen, K.; Bondy, D.M.; Moyo, C.; Strasser, T. Towards a foundation for holistic power system validation and testing. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE 21st International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), Berlin, Germany, 6–9 September 2016; pp. 1–4. [Google Scholar]
- Van der Meer, A.A.; Steinbrink, C.; Heussen, K.; Bondy, D.E.M.; Degefa, M.Z.; Andrén, F.P.; Strasser, T.I.; Lehnhoff, S.; Palensky, P. Design of experiments aided holistic testing of cyber-physical energy systems. In Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), Porto, Portugal, 10 April 2018; pp. 1–7. [Google Scholar]
- TwinPV Consortium. Stimulating Scientific Excellence Through Twinning in the Quest For Sustainable Energy; TwinPV Consortium: Brussels, Belgium, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Pröstl Andren, F.; Strasser, T.; Langthaler, O.; Veichtlbauer, A.; Kasberger, C.; Felbauer, G. Open and Interoperable ICT Solution for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources into Smart Grids. In Proceedings of the 21th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA’2016), Berlin, Germany, 6–9 September 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Pröstl Andren, F.; Strasser, T.; Seitl, C.; Resch, J.; Brandauer, C.; Panholzer, G. On Fostering Smart Grid Development and Validation with a Model-based Engineering and Support Framework. In Proceedings of the CIRED Workshop 2018, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 7–8 June 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Clausen, M.; Apel, R.; Dorchain, M.; Postina, M.; Uslar, M. Use Case methodology: A progress report. Energy Inform. 2018, 1, 19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kammerstetter, M.; Langer, L.; Skopik, F.; Kastner, W. Architecture-driven smart grid security management. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security, Salzburg, Austria, 11–13 June 2014; pp. 153–158. [Google Scholar]
- Langer, L.; Skopik, F.; Smith, P.; Kammerstetter, M. From old to new: Assessing cybersecurity risks for an evolving smart grid. Comput. Secur. 2016, 62, 165–176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yesudas, R.; Clarke, R. A framework for risk analysis in smart grid. In International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2013; pp. 84–95. [Google Scholar]
- Holles, S.; De Capitani, J.; Keel, T.; Rechsteiner, S.; Dizdarevic-Hasic, A.; Hettich, P.; Stocker, L.; Mathis, L.; Galbraith, L.; Koller, J. Datenschutz für Smart Grids: Offene Fragen und mögliche Lösungsansätze (Arbeitspaket 3); Study for the BfE: Bern, Switzerland, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Razo-Zapata, I.S. A Method to Assess the Economic Feasibility of New Commercial Services in the Smart Grid. In Proceedings of the IEEE 10th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA), Kanazawa, Japan, 22–25 November 2017; pp. 90–97. [Google Scholar]
- Razo-Zapata, I.S.; Shrestha, A.; Proper, E. An assessment framework to determine the strategic value of IT architectures in smart grids. In Proceedings of the 28th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS 2017), Hobart, Australia, 4–6 December 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Mihaylov, M.; Jurado, S.; Van Moffaert, K.; Avellana, N.; Nowé, A. NRG-X-Change-A Novel Mechanism for Trading of Renewable Energy in Smart Grids. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Smart Grids and Green IT Systems, Barcelona, Spain, 3–4 April 2014; pp. 101–106. [Google Scholar]
- Poursanidis, I.; Andreadou, N.; Kotsakis, E.; Masera, M. Absolute Scoring Scheme for Interoperability Testing of Advanced Metering Infrastructure on Demand Side Management. In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Future Energy Systems, Karlsruhe, Germany, 12–15 June 2018; pp. 391–392. [Google Scholar]
- Etherden, N.; Vyatkin, V.; Bollen, M.H. Virtual power plant for grid services using IEC 61850. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 2016, 12, 437–447. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lanna, A.; Liberati, F.; Zuccaro, L.; Di Giorgio, A. Electric vehicles charging control based on future internet generic enablers. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), Florence, Italy, 17–19 December 2014; pp. 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Böcker, S.; Geth, F.; Almeida, P.; Rapoport, S.; Wietfeld, C. Choice of ICT infrastructures and technologies in smart grid planning. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Lyon, France, 15–18 June 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Khayyam, S.; Ponci, F.; Goikoetxea, J.; Recagno, V.; Bagliano, V.; Monti, A. Railway energy management system: Centralized–decentralized automation architecture. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 2016, 7, 1164–1175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hooshyar, H.; Vanfretti, L. A SGAM-based architecture for synchrophasor applications facilitating TSO/DSO interactions. In Proceedings of the IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), Washington, DC, USA, 23–26 April 2017; pp. 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, Y.; Huang, T.; Bompard, E.F. Big data analytics in smart grids: A review. Energy Inform. 2018, 1, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Messinis, G.; Dimeas, A.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Kokos, I.; Lamprinos, I. ICT tools for enabling smart grid players’ flexibility through VPP and DR services. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM), Porto, Portugal, 6–9 June 2016; pp. 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Pignolet, Y.A.; Elias, H.; Kyntäjä, T.; de Cerio, I.M.D.; Heiles, J.; Boëda, D.; Caire, R. Future Internet for smart distribution systems. In Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), Berlin, Germany, 14–17 October 2012; pp. 1–8. [Google Scholar]
- Piatkowska, E.; Bayarri, L.P.; Garcia, L.A.; Mavrogenou, K.; Tsatsakis, K.; Sanduleac, M.; Smith, P. Enabling novel smart grid energy services with the nobel grid architecture. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech, Manchester, UK, 18–22 June 2017; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Wilker, S.; Meisel, M.; Piatkowska, E.; Sauter, T.; Jung, O. Smart Grid Reference Architecture, an Approach on a Secure and Model-Driven Implementation. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 27th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Cairns, QLD, Australia, 13–15 June 2018; pp. 74–79. [Google Scholar]
- Bullich-Massagué, E.; Aragüés-Penalba, M.; Olivella-Rosell, P.; Lloret-Gallego, P.; Vidal-Clos, J.A.; Sumper, A. Architecture definition and operation testing of local electricity markets. The EMPOWER project. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Power Systems (MPS), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 6–9 June 2017; pp. 1–5. [Google Scholar]
- Lloret-Gallego, P.; Aragüés-Peñalba, M.; Van Schepdael, L.; Bullich-Massagué, E.; Olivella-Rosell, P.; Sumper, A. Methodology for the Evaluation of Resilience of ICT Systems for Smart Distribution Grids. Energies 2017, 10, 1287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smidt, H.; Thornton, M.; Ghorbani, R. Smart application development for IoT asset management using graph database modeling and high-availability web services. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, 3–6 January 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Prinsloo, G.; Dobson, R.; Mammoli, A. Synthesis of an intelligent rural village microgrid control strategy based on smartgrid multi-agent modelling and transactive energy management principles. Energy 2018, 147, 263–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heidel, R.; Hankel, M.; Döbrich, U.; Hoffmeister, M. Basiswissen RAMI 4.0: Referenzarchitekturmodell und Industrie 4.0-Komponente Industrie 4.0; VDE Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Binder, C.; Neureiter, C.; Lastro, G.; Uslar, M.; Lieber, P. Towards a Standards-Based Domain Specific Language for Industry 4.0 Architectures. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management, Paris, France, 18–19 December 2018; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2018; pp. 44–55. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Göring, A.; Heidel, R.; Neureiter, C.; Engel, D.; Schulte, S. An Open Source 3D Visualization for the RAMI 4.0 Reference Modell; VDE Kongress 2016, Mannheim; VDE Verlag GMBH: Berlin, Germany, 2016; Volume 1, pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Hanna, S. Model-driven Requirements Engineering Using RAMI 4.0 Based Visualizations. In Proceedings of the Modellierung 2018—AQEMO: Adequacy of Modeling Methods, Braunschweig, Germany, 21 February 2018; Volume 2060, pp. 21–30. [Google Scholar]
- Clausen, M.; Gottschalk, M.; Hanna, S.; Kronberg, C.; Rosinger, C.; Rosinger, M.; Schulte, J.; Schütz, J.; Uslar, M. Smart grid security method: Consolidating requirements using a systematic approach. In Proceedings of the CIRED Workshops 2018, Ljubljana, Slowenia, 7–8 June 2018; Volume 1. [Google Scholar]
- Security Sub-Working Group “Connected and Automatic Driving” of the Governmental Department of Transport and Infrastructure (BMVI). TFCS-08-05: Reference Architecture Model Automotive (RAMA); BMVI: Berlin, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Weinert, B. Ein Framework zur Architekturbeschreibung von Sozio-Technischen Maritimen Systemen; MBSE Press: Hamburg, Germany, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Weinert, B.; Uslar, M.; Hahn, A. System-of-systems: How the maritime domain can leam from the Smart Grid. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Symposium ELMAR, Zadar, Croatia, 18–20 September 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Weinert, B.; Uslar, M.; Hahn, A. Domain-Specific Requirements Elicitation for Socio-Technical System of Systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE 13th System of Systems Engineering Conference—SoSE 2018, Paris, France, 19–22 June 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Neureiter, C.; Engel, S.; Rohjans, S.; Dänekas, C.; Uslar, M. Addressing the complexity of distributed smart city systems by utilization of model driven engineering concepts. In Proceedings of the VDE-Kongress 2014—Smart Cities, Frankfurt, Germany, 20–21 October 2014; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Hurtado, L.; Nguyen, P.; Kling, W. Smart grid and smart building inter-operation using agent-based particle swarm optimization. Sustain. Energy Grids Netw. 2015, 2, 32–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mocanu, E.; Aduda, K.O.; Nguyen, P.H.; Boxem, G.; Zeiler, W.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L. Optimizing the energy exchange between the smart grid and building systems. In Proceedings of the 49th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2–5 September 2014; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Shafiullah, D.; Vo, T.; Nguyen, P.; Pemen, A. Different smart grid frameworks in context of smart neighborhood: A review. In Proceedings of the 52nd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Heraklion, Greece, 28–31 August 2017; pp. 1–6. [Google Scholar]
- Schuh, G.; Fluhr, J.; Birkmeier, M.; Sund, M. Information system architecture for the interaction of electric vehicles with the power grid. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC), Evry, France, 10–12 April 2013; pp. 821–825. [Google Scholar]
- Meloni, A.; Atzori, L. A cloud-based and restful internet of things platform to foster smart grid technologies integration and re-usability. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23–27 May 2016; pp. 387–392. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, C.; Wu, J.; Cheng, M.; Zhou, Y.; Long, C. A bidding system for peer-to-peer energy trading in a grid-connected microgrid. Energy Procedia 2016, 103, 147–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gottschalk, M.; Uslar, M.; Delfs, C. Smart City Infrastructure Architecture Model (SCIAM); Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 75–76. [Google Scholar]
- Frascella, A.; Brutti, A.; Gessa, N.; De Sabbata, P.; Novelli, C.; Burns, M.; Bhatt, V.; Ianniello, R.; He, L. A minimum set of common principles for enabling Smart City Interoperability. J. Technol. Archit. Environ. 2018, 56–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Babar, M.; Nguyen, P. Analyzing an Agile Solution For Intelligent Distribution Grid Development: A Smart Grid Architecture Method. In Proceedings of the IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), Singapore, 22–25 May 2018; pp. 605–610. [Google Scholar]
- Dänekas, C.; Neureiter, C.; Rohjans, S.; Uslar, M.; Engel, D. Towards a Model-Driven-Architecture Process for Smart Grid Projects. In Digital Enterprise Design & Management; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Steinbrink, C.; Schlögl, F.; Babazadeh, D.; Lehnhoff, S.; Rohjans, S.; Narayan, A. Future Perspectives of Co-Simulation in the Smart Grid Domain. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Energy Conference (Energycon), Limassol, Cyprus, 3–7 June 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Schütte, S.; Scherfke, S.; Tröschel, M. Mosaik: A framework for modular simulation of active components in Smart Grids. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE First International Workshop on Smart Grid Modeling and Simulation (SGMS), Brussels, Belgium, 17 October 2011; pp. 55–60. [Google Scholar]
- Uslar, M.; Rosinger, C.; Schlegel, S. Security by Design for the Smart Grid: Combining the SGAM and NISTIR 7628. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 38th International Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), Vasteras, Sweden, 21–25 July 2014; pp. 110–115. [Google Scholar]
- Gottschalk, M.; Franzl, G.; Frohner, M.; Pasteka, R.; Uslar, M. Structured workflow achieving interoperable Smart Energy systems. Energy Inform. 2018, 1, 25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gottschalk, M.; Franzl, G.; Frohner, M.; Pasteka, R.; Uslar, M. From Integration Profiles to Interoperability Testing for Smart Energy Systems at Connectathon Energy. Energies 2018, 11, 3375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blochwitz, T.; Otter, M.; Arnold, M.; Bausch, C.; Clauß, C.; Elmqvist, H.; Junghanns, A.; Mauss, J.; Monteiro, M.; Neidhold, T.; et al. The Functional Mockup Interface for Tool independent Exchange of Simulation Models. In Proceedings of the 8th International Modelica Conference 2011, Dresden, Germany, 20–22 March 2011; pp. 173–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chilard, O.; Boes, J.; Perles, A.; Camilleri, G.; Gleizes, M.P.; Tavella, J.P.; Croteau, D. The Modelica language and the FMI standard for modeling and simulation of Smart Grids. In Proceedings of the 11th International Modelica Conference, Versailles, France, 21–23 September 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Mirz, M.; Razik, L.; Dinkelbach, J.; Tokel, H.A.; Alirezaei, G.; Mathar, R.; Monti, A. A Cosimulation Architecture for Power System, Communication, and Market in the Smart Grid. Complexity 2018, 2018, 7154031. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- van der Meer, A.A.; Palensky, P.; Heussen, K.; Bondy, D.E.M.; Gehrke, O.; Steinbrink, C.; Blank, M.; Lehnhoff, S.; Widl, E.; Moyo, C.; et al. Cyber-Physical Energy Systems Modeling, Test Specification, and Co-Simulation Based Testing. In Proceedings of the 2017 Workshop on Modeling and Simulation of Cyber-Physical Energy Systems (MSCPES), Pittsburgh, PA, USA, 21 April 2015. [Google Scholar]
- ETIP SNET. European Technology and Innovation Platform for Smart Networks for Energy Transition. Available online: https://www.etip-snet.eu/ (accessed on 9 December 2018).
- Uslar, M.; Hanna, S. Teaching Domain-Specific Requirements Engineering to Industry: Applying Lego Serious Play to Smart Grids. In Proceedings of the SE 2018—ISEE 2018: 1st Workshop on Innovative Software Engineering Education, Ulm, Germany, 6–8 March 2018; Volume 2066, pp. 36–37. [Google Scholar]
- Francesco, E.D.; Francesco, R.D.; Leccese, F.; Paggi, A. The ASD S3000L for the enhancement of “in field” avionic measurements. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Metrology for Aerospace (MetroAeroSpace), Benevento, Italy, 29–30 May 2014; pp. 174–179. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Francesco, E.D.; Francesco, E.D.; Francesco, R.D.; Leccese, F.; Cagnetti, M. A proposal to update LSA databases for an operational availability based on autonomic logistic. In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Metrology for Aerospace (MetroAeroSpace), Benevento, Italy, 4–5 June 2015; pp. 38–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Uslar, M.; Rohjans, S.; Neureiter, C.; Pröstl Andrén, F.; Velasquez, J.; Steinbrink, C.; Efthymiou, V.; Migliavacca, G.; Horsmanheimo, S.; Brunner, H.; Strasser, T.I. Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective. Energies 2019, 12, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258
Uslar M, Rohjans S, Neureiter C, Pröstl Andrén F, Velasquez J, Steinbrink C, Efthymiou V, Migliavacca G, Horsmanheimo S, Brunner H, Strasser TI. Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective. Energies. 2019; 12(2):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258Chicago/Turabian Style
Uslar, Mathias, Sebastian Rohjans, Christian Neureiter, Filip Pröstl Andrén, Jorge Velasquez, Cornelius Steinbrink, Venizelos Efthymiou, Gianluigi Migliavacca, Seppo Horsmanheimo, Helfried Brunner, and Thomas I. Strasser. 2019. "Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective" Energies 12, no. 2: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258