Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective
2. Overview of the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM)
- Operational Independence of Elements
- Managerial Independence of Elements
- Evolutionary Development
- Emergent Behavior
- Geographical Distribution of Elements
- Interdisciplinary Study
- Heterogeneity of Systems
- Networks of Systems
- Bulk Generation: Represents generation of electricity in bulk quantities, such as by fossil, nuclear and hydro power plants, off-shore wind farms, large scale solar power plant (i.e., Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)), which are typically connected to the transmission system.
- Transmission: Represents the infrastructure that transports electricity over long distances.
- Distribution: Represents the infrastructure that distributes electricity to customers.
- Distributed Energy Resource (DER): Represents distributed electrical resources directly connected to the public distribution grid, applying small-scale power generation technologies (typically in the range of 3–10 MW). These distributed electrical resources may be directly controlled by a Distribution System Operator (DSO).
- Customer Premises: Host both end users of electricity and producers of electricity. The premises include industrial, commercial and home facilities (e.g., chemical plants, airports, harbors, shopping centers, and homes). In addition, generation in the form of, e.g., PV generation, Electric Vehicles (EV), storage, batteries, micro turbines, etc., are hosted.
- Market: Reflects the market operations possible along the energy conversion chain, e.g., energy trading, mass market, retail market, etc.
- Enterprise: Includes commercial and organizational processes, services and infrastructures for enterprises (utilities, service providers, energy traders, etc.), e.g., asset management, logistics, work force management, staff training, customer relation management, billing, etc.
- Operation: Hosts power system control operation in the respective domain, e.g., Distribution Management Systems (DMS), Energy Management Systems (EMS) in generation and transmission systems, microgrid management systems, virtual power plant management systems (aggregating several DER), and EV fleet charging management systems.
- Station: Represents the areal aggregation level for field level, e.g., for data concentration, functional aggregation, substation automation, local Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, plant supervision, etc.
- Field: Includes equipment to protect, control and monitor the process of the power system, e.g., protection relays, bay controller, and any kind of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) that acquire and use process data from the power system.
- Process: Includes the physical, chemical or spatial transformations of energy (electricity, solar, heat, water, wind, etc.) and the physical equipment directly involved (e.g., generators, transformers, circuit breakers, overhead lines, cables, electrical loads, any kind of sensors and actuators that are part of or directly connected to the process, etc.).
- Business Layer: Provides a business view on the information exchange related to Smart Grids. Regulatory and economic structures can be mapped on this layer.
- Function Layer: Describes services including their relationships from an architectural viewpoint.
- Information Layer: Describes information objects being exchanged and the underlying canonical data models.
- Communication Layer: Describes protocols and mechanisms for the exchange of information between components.
- Component Layer: Physical distribution of all participating components including power system and ICT equipment.
3. Application of the Smart Grid Architecture Model
3.1. Software Support and Tools
3.1.1. SGAM Toolbox
- Computation Independent Model (CIM): The CIM can be interpreted as “System Level” describing a system from its outside perspective, which means focus is put on the delivered functionality rather than on the technology. Please note that the IEC 61970/61968 series [23,24], also known as CIM (Common Information Model), which is an ontology for defining objects and relations to model power system, is indeed a PIM in the sense of MDA.
- Platform Independent Model (PIM): This layer can be seen as “Architecture Level”. It aims at focusing on the decomposition of the system without considering detailed technical aspects of individual components.
- Platform Specific Model (PSM): The PSM describes the technical aspects for realizing the individual components. Thus, it can be seen as Detailed Design Layer.
- Platform Specific Implementation (PSI): This last layer represents the realized implementation. In case of one artifact being realized as software, this can be seen as the source code created.
3.1.2. 3D Visualisation
3.1.3. Power System Automation Language (PSAL)
3.2. European-Funded Projects and Activities
3.2.1. FP7 DISCERN (Distributed Intelligence for Cost-Effective and Reliable Solutions)
- Identify existing interoperability issues in the used systems that implement a particular sub-functionality or functionality. Available standards and standardization gaps for each individual solution can be represented in the SGAM visualization template.
- Describe the real-life physical distribution of the components used in the field (e.g., software based applications, devices and communication elements deployed). In the use case template, it is possible to define which existing and future actors are involved in a functionality, but it is currently not possible to represent how these actors are actually implemented in the physical layer of the system.
- Establish clear relationships between the business use cases and business objectives that explain the benefits derived by the (leader) company with the functionality, the technical functions that are required to realize such functionality, the information exchanges between the individual functions, the standards used for communication and data models that enable the information exchange, and the physical components that implement the technical functions.
- Carry out an impact analysis, analysis for security compliance, find risk elements, compatibility/comparison at DSO level and the future specification of new features.
- Some standard-based formats to exchange items such as use cases, SGAM models, and libraries of terms used in the corresponding descriptions (Actors, Functions, and Requirements);
- Enhanced templates with standards-based XML export functionality to export use cases, SGAM models, and libraries in those standard-based 62559 compliant formats; and
- Web-based repository to store and manage elicited use cases, SGAM models, and libraries, managing access rights and, thus, enabling multi-editing of the defined descriptions.
3.2.2. FP7 ELECTRA IRP (European Liaison on Electricity Committed towards Long-Term Research Activity Integrated Research Programme)
3.2.3. H2020 SmartNet: Smart TSO-DSO Interaction Schemes, Market Architectures and ICT Solutions for the Integration of Ancillary Services from Demand Side Management and Distributed Generation
3.2.4. H2020 TDX-Assist: Coordination of Transmission and Distribution Data Exchanges for Renewables Integration in the European Marketplace through Advanced, Scalable and Secure ICT Systems and Tools
3.2.5. H2020 ERIGrid: European Research Infrastructure Supporting Smart Grid Systems Technology Development, Validation and Roll Out
3.2.6. H2020 TwinPV: Stimulating Scientific Excellence through Twinning in the Quest for Sustainable Energy (TwinPV)
3.3. National-Funded Projects and Activities
3.3.1. Austrian ICT of the Future OpenNES: Open and Interoperable ICT Solution for Integration of Renewables
3.3.2. Austrian ICT of the Future MESSE: Model-Based Engineering and Validation Support for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems
- Specification and use case design: For this phase, a formal specification and use case analysis method is defined. It is based on SGAM, IEC 62559, and PSAL. Various levels of detail can be addressed during the design. High-level use case descriptions as well as more detailed specifications of functionality, communication, and information models are possible. The information defined in this phase act as the main input for the automatic engineering and validation.
- Automated engineering: Based on the specifications and use case design, different types of configurations are being generated. In MESSE, approaches for three different domains are developed: executable code for field devices, ICT configurations and Human–Machine Interface (HMI) configurations. HMI configurations are used to define the layout of visualizations as well as to configure how user actions should be interpreted and executed.
- Automated validation and deployment: Automated testing for software development has been common practice for several years. However, similar approaches for Smart Grid systems are currently missing. In MESSE, a methodology for the automatic testing of Smart Grid systems is being developed. Based on the scenarios and specifications from the engineer, appropriate tests are generated. Apart from pure software testing, tests can be a combination of software, hardware, and simulations. For manual hardware setups, guidelines for the user are generated.
3.3.3. German SINTEG Project Enera: The Next Big Step in the Energy Transition
3.4. Further Projects, Activities, and Applications
- Requirements analysis for Virtual Power Plants (VPP) and their mapping onto standards as IEC 61850 and IEC 61970/61968 ;
- Identification of involved actors, equipment, communications and processes for Electric Vehicles (EV) charging control ;
- ICT planning approach that can be used in combination with distribution network planning processes and tools ;
- Development of a railway energy management system by using the SGAM model and methods ;
- Design of an architecture of a distribution grid automation system focusing on PMU-based monitoring functions accommodating for key dynamic information exchange between TSOs and DSOs ; and
- SGAM-based explanation of Smart Grids in order to present Big Data analytics .
4. Transfer to Other Domains
4.1. Industrial Automation
4.3. Automotive Domain
4.4. Maritime Domain
- Ships and other maritime traffic objects are actors that are at sea; they can be vessels, or cargo or passenger ships.
- The link describes the existing connection between actors from the ship-side to the shore side with telecommunication methods and protocols. This additionally includes actors such as radio towers and transmission masts.
- Actors on the shore are sea ports, docks, halls, and third-parties where ships land or which organize the shiploads.
- All components and systems which can execute a physical action are depicted in the Transport Objects zone, e.g., ship, crane, port, and transmission masts.
- The Sensors and Actuators zone includes all the components that are needed for receiving or sending data, such as antenna, transceiver, ISO 11898, etc.
- Single services are shown in the Technical Services zone, e.g., IEC 61162 and NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) 2000.
- Actors, information objects and protocols for operating and control services are displayed in the Systems zone, e.g., the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS).
- In the zone Operations, the operating and control units from global, regional, national or local perspective are depicted, e.g., the VTS center.
- In the Fields of Activity zone, systems are described which support markets and eco-systems along the maritime domain, e.g., the traffic message broadcast.
4.5. Smart Cities
4.6. Further Adoptions
5. Future Perspectives
5.1. Supporting Tools and Software
5.2. Design and Engineering
5.3. Validation and Testing
5.4. Wide Usage in R&D Projects
- Standard-based formats to design and exchange use cases, SGAM models, and libraries of terms and data;
- Enhanced templates with standards-based XML export functionality to export use cases, SGAM models and libraries following standard-based IEC 62559 compliant formats;
- Web-based repository to store and manage elicited use cases, SGAM models, and libraries, managing access rights and enabling multi-editing of the defined descriptions;
- Automated engineering to the highest degree possible that will be continuously enhanced; and
- Automated validation and deployment through collaborative simulation work possibilities.
6. Discussion, Lessons Learned, and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
|3L||Leader, Learner, Listener|
|ju-RAMI||juristisches Referenzarchitekturmodell Industrie 4.0|
|reqIF||Requirements Interchange Format|
|AAL||Ambient Assisted Living|
|ADM||Architecture Development Method|
|AMI||Advanced Metering Infrastructure|
|API||Application Programming Interface|
|AUTOSAR||AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture|
|BEMS||Building Energy Management System|
|BMVI||Bundesministerium für Verkehr und digitale Infrastruktur|
|CBA||Cost based analysis|
|CEN||Comité Européen de Normalisation|
|CENELEC||European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization|
|CIM||Computational Independent Model|
|CSP||Concentrated Solar Power or Customer Side Participation|
|DER||Distributed Energy Resource|
|DISCERN||Distributed Intelligence for Cost-effective and Reliable Solutions|
|DMS||Distribution Management System|
|DSL||Domain Specific Language|
|DSM||Demand Side Management|
|DSO||Distribution System Operator|
|ELECTRA||European Liaison on Electricity Committed Towards long-term Research Activity|
|EM-ISA||E-Mobility Information System Architecture|
|EMS||Energy Management System|
|EMPOWER||Local Energy Retail Markets for Prosumer Smart Grid Power Services|
|ERIGrid||European Research Infrastructure supporting Smart Grid Systems Technology Development, Validation and Roll Out|
|ERM||Entity Relationship Model|
|ETIP||European Technology and Innovation Platform|
|ETSI||European Telecommunications Standards Institute|
|FINSENY||Future Internet for Smart Energy|
|FMI||Functional Mock-up Interface|
|FP7||Framework Program 7|
|GPL||Generalized Programming Language|
|GSCAM||Generic Smart City Architecture Model|
|GWAC||GridWise Architecture Council|
|HTD||Holistic Test Description|
|HMI||Human Machine Interface|
|ICT||Information and Communication Technology|
|IEC||International Electrotechnical Commission|
|IED||Intelligent Electronic Devices|
|IMO||International Maritime Organization|
|IRR||Internal Rate of Return|
|ISO||International Organization for Standardization|
|LCIM||Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model|
|LIC||Logical Interface Class|
|LRM||Logical Reference Model|
|MAF||Maritime Architecture Framework|
|MBSE||Model-Based Systems Engineering|
|MESSE||Model-based Engineering and Validation Support for Cyber-Physical Energy Systems|
|NEMS||Neighborhood Energy Management System|
|NIST||National Institute of Technology|
|NMEA||National Marine Electronics Association|
|Nobel Grid||New Cost Efficient Business Models for Flexible Smart Grids|
|NPV||Net Present Value|
|OEM||Original Equipment Manufacturer|
|OpenNES||Open and Interoperable ICT Solution for Integration of Renewables|
|PAS||Publicly Available Specification|
|PIM||Platform Independent Model|
|PMU||Phasor Measurement Unit|
|PSAL||Power System Automation Language|
|PSI||Platform Specific Implementation|
|PSM||Platform Specific Model|
|PSO||Particle Swarm Optimization|
|QoS||Quality of Service|
|RAMA||Reference Architecture Model Automotive|
|RAMI||Reference Architecture Model for Industry 4.0|
|RAMS||Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety|
|RASSA||Reference Architecture for Secure Smart Grids in Austria|
|RAWG||Reference Architecture Working group|
|R&D||Research and Development|
|RES||Renewable Energy Source|
|REST||Representational State Transfer|
|SCIAM||Smart City Infrastructure Architecture Model|
|SCADA||Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition|
|SGAM||Smart Grid Architecture Model|
|SINTEG||Schaufenster Intelligente Energie|
|SmarterEMC2||Smarter Grid:Empowering SG Market ACtors through Information and Communication Technologies|
|SNET||European Technology and Innovation Platform Smart Networks for Energy Transition|
|SoS||System of Systems|
|SRD||System Reference Document|
|STIX||Structured Threat Information eXpression|
|SysML||System Markup Language|
|TAXII||Trusted Automated eXchange of Indicator Information|
|TC||Test Case or Technical Committee|
|TDX-Assist||Coordination of Transmission and Distribution data eXchanges for renewables integration in the European marketplace through Advanced, Scalable and Secure ICT Systems and Tools|
|TOGAF||The Open Group Architecture Framework|
|TRL||Technology Readiness Level|
|TSO||Transmission System Operator|
|TwinPV||Stimulating scientific excellence through twinning in the quest for sustainable energy|
|UCMR||Use Case Management Repository|
|UML||Unified Modeling Language|
|VPP||Virtual Power Plant|
|VTS||Vessel Traffic Service|
|XML||Extensible Markup Language|
|ZVEI||Zentralverband Elektrotechnik- und Elektronikindustrie|
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Uslar, M.; Rohjans, S.; Neureiter, C.; Pröstl Andrén, F.; Velasquez, J.; Steinbrink, C.; Efthymiou, V.; Migliavacca, G.; Horsmanheimo, S.; Brunner, H.; Strasser, T.I. Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective. Energies 2019, 12, 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258
Uslar M, Rohjans S, Neureiter C, Pröstl Andrén F, Velasquez J, Steinbrink C, Efthymiou V, Migliavacca G, Horsmanheimo S, Brunner H, Strasser TI. Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective. Energies. 2019; 12(2):258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258Chicago/Turabian Style
Uslar, Mathias, Sebastian Rohjans, Christian Neureiter, Filip Pröstl Andrén, Jorge Velasquez, Cornelius Steinbrink, Venizelos Efthymiou, Gianluigi Migliavacca, Seppo Horsmanheimo, Helfried Brunner, and Thomas I. Strasser. 2019. "Applying the Smart Grid Architecture Model for Designing and Validating System-of-Systems in the Power and Energy Domain: A European Perspective" Energies 12, no. 2: 258. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12020258