The performance of an automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressor has been studied by developing a comprehensive one-dimensional (1D) code as verified through experimental results and a three-dimensional (3D) model. For 1D analysis, the fluid stream in compressor is modeled using governing gas dynamics equations and the loss mechanisms have been investigated and added to the numerical model. The objective is to develop and offer a 1D model, which considers all loss mechanisms, slip, blockage and also predicts the surge margin and choke conditions. The model captures all features from inlet duct through to volute discharge. Performance characteristics are obtained using preliminary geometry and the blade characteristics. A 3D numerical model was also created and a viscous solver used for investigating the compressor characteristics. The numerical model results show good agreement with experimental data through compressor pressure ratio and efficiency. The effect of the main compressor dimensions on compressor performance has been investigated for wide operating range and the portions of each loss mechanism in the impeller. Higher pressure ratio is achievable by increasing impeller blade height at outlet, impeller blade angle on inlet, diffuser outlet diameter and by decreasing impeller shroud diameter at inlet and blade angle at outlet. These changes may cause unfavorable consequences such as a lower surge margin or shorter operating range, which should be compromised with favorable changes. At lower rotational speeds, impeller skin friction mainly impacts the performance and at higher rotational speeds, impeller diffusion, blade loading and recirculation losses are more important. The results allow the share of each loss mechanism to be quantified for different mass flow rates and rotational speed, shedding new light on which losses are most important for which conditions. For a turbocharger, which must operate over a wide range of conditions, these results bring new insight to engineers seeking to optimize the compressor design as part of an internal combustion engine system.
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