Next Article in Journal
Challenges in the Electromagnetic Modeling of Road Embedded Wireless Power Transfer
Previous Article in Journal
The Novel Rotor Flux Estimation Scheme Based on the Induction Motor Mathematical Model Including Rotor Deep-Bar Effect
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of an Innovative Way to Store Hydrogen in Vehicles
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Allocation of Ontario’s Surplus Electricity to Different Power-to-Gas Applications

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
College of Business, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain 64141, UAE
Department of Chemical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 127788, UAE
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2675;
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilization)
PDF [2052 KB, uploaded 15 July 2019]


Power-to-Gas (PtG) is a potential means of managing intermittent and weather-dependent renewable energies to create a storable chemical energy form. Power-to-Gas is not only a storage technology; its role can be extended to many other applications including energy distribution, transportation, and industrial use. This study quantifies the hydrogen volumes upon utilizing Ontario, Canada’s surplus electricity baseload and explores the allocation of the hydrogen produced to four Power-to-Gas pathways in terms of economic and environmental benefits, focusing on the following Power-to-Gas pathways: Power-to-Gas to mobility fuel, Power-to-Gas to industry, Power-to-Gas to natural gas pipelines for use as hydrogen-enriched natural gas, and Power-to-Gas to renewable natural gas (i.e., Methanation). The study shows that the Power-to-Gas to mobility fuel pathway has the potential to be implemented. Utilization of hydrogen for refueling light-duty vehicles is a profitable business case with an average positive net present value of $4.5 billions, five years payback time, and 20% internal rate of return. Moreover, this PtG pathway promises a potential 2,215,916 tonnes of CO2 reduction from road travel. View Full-Text
Keywords: Power-to-Gas; hydrogen production; hydrogen economy; hydrogen energy storage; electrolyzers; Techno-economic assessment Power-to-Gas; hydrogen production; hydrogen economy; hydrogen energy storage; electrolyzers; Techno-economic assessment

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Zakwani, S.S.; Maroufmashat, A.; Mazouz, A.; Fowler, M.; Elkamel, A. Allocation of Ontario’s Surplus Electricity to Different Power-to-Gas Applications. Energies 2019, 12, 2675.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top