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Allocation of Ontario’s Surplus Electricity to Different Power-to-Gas Applications

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
College of Business, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain 64141, UAE
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi 127788, UAE
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2019, 12(14), 2675; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12142675
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilization)
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Abstract

Power-to-Gas (PtG) is a potential means of managing intermittent and weather-dependent renewable energies to create a storable chemical energy form. Power-to-Gas is not only a storage technology; its role can be extended to many other applications including energy distribution, transportation, and industrial use. This study quantifies the hydrogen volumes upon utilizing Ontario, Canada’s surplus electricity baseload and explores the allocation of the hydrogen produced to four Power-to-Gas pathways in terms of economic and environmental benefits, focusing on the following Power-to-Gas pathways: Power-to-Gas to mobility fuel, Power-to-Gas to industry, Power-to-Gas to natural gas pipelines for use as hydrogen-enriched natural gas, and Power-to-Gas to renewable natural gas (i.e., Methanation). The study shows that the Power-to-Gas to mobility fuel pathway has the potential to be implemented. Utilization of hydrogen for refueling light-duty vehicles is a profitable business case with an average positive net present value of $4.5 billions, five years payback time, and 20% internal rate of return. Moreover, this PtG pathway promises a potential 2,215,916 tonnes of CO2 reduction from road travel. View Full-Text
Keywords: Power-to-Gas; hydrogen production; hydrogen economy; hydrogen energy storage; electrolyzers; Techno-economic assessment Power-to-Gas; hydrogen production; hydrogen economy; hydrogen energy storage; electrolyzers; Techno-economic assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Al-Zakwani, S.S.; Maroufmashat, A.; Mazouz, A.; Fowler, M.; Elkamel, A. Allocation of Ontario’s Surplus Electricity to Different Power-to-Gas Applications. Energies 2019, 12, 2675.

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