An Energy Potential Estimation Methodology and Novel Prototype Design for Building-Integrated Wind Turbines
- They can work as standalone devices, so they can provide energy in isolated locations without a connection to the electric grid.
- They work in distributed micro-generation mode, thus minimizing energy losses due to transport and distribution. These devices generate energy at a site that is close to the final user, thus dramatically reducing the need for electric infrastructures.
- Furthermore, it can be combined with photovoltaic energy in hybrid installations to enable the optimal use and management of shared electric accumulators.
2. Data and Methodology
2.1. Data and Location
2.1.1. Anemometers and ERA5
2.1.2. Quantile-Mapping Calibration
2.2. ROSEO-BIWT Design
2.2.1. The Location on the Upper Edge of the Building
2.2.2. Savonius Turbine
2.2.3. The Final Design
2.3. Experiments in the Wind Tunnel
- First, according to the literature, the augmentation factor of the wind speed on the edge of the buildings is around 1.2. Wind speed augmentation is the result of the union between the usual horizontal component and the vertical component.
- Then, the previous augmentation factor should be multiplied by the new increment provided by the vanes. These factors will be measured for different wind speeds in the wind tunnel of the university using a small-scale model of a building with curtain-type vanes (see Figure 5) and a rotor or 2 cm diameter.
- A similar experiment will be performed for a real Savonius with one inferior vane and will be critically compared with other studies.
- Finally, the Weibull distribution at the location obtained by the previously described calibration methodology will be applied to the measured power curve that includes . Thus, the amount of hours at rated power due to this augmentation will be an interesting parameter about energy production.
3.1. Effect of the PAGV in the Real Savonius
3.2. Augmentation Factor in the Small-Scale Building Model
3.3. Wind Rose around the Building
3.4. Comparison between ERA5 and the Anemometer
3.5. Estimation of the Energy Potential
- According to Mertens  and the initial experiments with our small-scale building in the wind tunnel, the wind increases its velocity by 20% at the upper edge of a typical building.
- The simplest PAGVs have increased the wind speed by four times, with a corresponding increase in to a value as high as 0.37 . Although higher values can be obtained with wider entrances, the authors will use an of 4 for the estimation, although there is also a 20% augmentation due to the additional architectonic acceleration at the upper edge.
- Taking into account the wind rose in Figure 11, the authors only considered the wind data of ERA5 for the valley direction and for our turbine on the corresponding facade.
- has been corroborated by our small-scale building with PAGVs for different wind speed values in the wind tunnel. Although the optimum vane angle experiment has not yet been developed, the first test results are consistent with values reported in the literature.
- has been corroborated by the real Savonius with the inferior vane.
- The analyses of the wind resource in the open direction of the valley and the corresponding facade yield a wind speed histogram or Weibull distribution that can be applied to the power curve of the turbine with .
- For the first estimation presented here, the working time at rated power due to the increment of wind speed using PAGVs has been computed.
- The turbine’s working hours per year in the interval of rated wind speed (above 17.9 m/s) can be computed if the cumulative density function (Equation (2)) is applied to c, which results in the following working hours:
- Therefore, AEP is kWh at the rated power; it is a very small value since the working hours of a profitable turbine should be around 2000 h per year.
- However, multiplying the scale parameter c by values between 2 and 4 ( is the value obtained in the laboratory using only one inferior vane and 4 the maximum expected value according to the mentioned literature) and keeping the typical value of , the total augmentation factor from the PAGVs and the edge effect increases the AEP and working hours. Figure 13 shows the annual working hours () at rated power in function of the average wind speed of the site for different factors: .At low annual average wind speed of 3 m/s, the maximum can produce 2000 h at rated power. At m/s, between 2.5 and 3 is necessary to ensure the 2000 h. At m/s, the minimum obtained with only the inferior vane (Figure 5) is almost sufficient. At high s, an or 4 implies 75% of the time at rated power.
4. Conclusions and Future Outlook
Conflicts of Interest
|CFD||Computational Fluid Dynamics|
|BIWT||Building-Integrated Wind turbine|
|O&M||Operation and maintenance|
|PAGV||Power Augment Guiding Vane|
|Probability Density Function|
|Annual Energy Production|
|c||Weibull’s scale parameter|
|Maximum Power Coefficient|
|k||Weibull’s shape parameter|
|Tip Speed Ratio|
|Optimum TSR where is maximum|
|Optimum TSR with augmentation techniques|
|Average wind Speed|
|Wind speed in the prototype|
|Wind speed in the model|
|Rated wind speed|
|Blade tip speed|
|Annual working hours at rated power|
|Roughness of the Terrain|
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|Length; diameter||2 m; 630 mm|
|Measuring system||Pitot tubes, an ultrasonic anemometer, and air pressure transducers|
|Range of wind speed||0–13 m/s|
|Materials||Structure of aluminum and dome of polycarbonate|
|Control panel||Potentiometer for the regulation of wind speed, rpm, and torque|
|Generator||maxon RE motor 65 mm, Graphite Brushes, 250 Watt |
|Data acquisition||Variable resistor with measurement of voltage, intensity, and power|
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Garcia, O.; Ulazia, A.; del Rio, M.; Carreno-Madinabeitia, S.; Gonzalez-Arceo, A. An Energy Potential Estimation Methodology and Novel Prototype Design for Building-Integrated Wind Turbines. Energies 2019, 12, 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102027
Garcia O, Ulazia A, del Rio M, Carreno-Madinabeitia S, Gonzalez-Arceo A. An Energy Potential Estimation Methodology and Novel Prototype Design for Building-Integrated Wind Turbines. Energies. 2019; 12(10):2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102027Chicago/Turabian Style
Garcia, Oscar, Alain Ulazia, Mario del Rio, Sheila Carreno-Madinabeitia, and Andoni Gonzalez-Arceo. 2019. "An Energy Potential Estimation Methodology and Novel Prototype Design for Building-Integrated Wind Turbines" Energies 12, no. 10: 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12102027