# Transient Faults in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Analysis, Modelling Methodologies and Remedies

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Transient Models of Associate Components in WECS

#### 2.1. Wind Turbine Generator Transient Model

#### 2.1.1. Windmill Transient Model

#### 2.1.2. Circuit Breaker Transient Models

_{6}) circuit breaker was simulated using a test setup [35].

## 3. Transient Analysis in WECS

- (1)
- maximum voltage,
- (2)
- rate at which the voltage rises,
- (3)
- oscillation frequencies at each closing of the restrike or prestrike period,
- (4)
- breaker maximum current,
- (5)
- traveling time of the cables and
- (6)
- the relationship of the voltage to the current.

#### Transient Stability Analysis in WECS

## 4. Transient Phenomena in HVDC and Offshore Wind Farms

#### HVDC Transient Protection and Improvement Scheme

## 5. Methods for Mitigation and Control of Transients in Wind Turbine Generators

#### 5.1. Transient Control Techniques in WECS

- fast recovery
- speed variation of the transient for a limited period that enables a special type of generator to inject the required amount of active power to remedy the transient frequency deviations.

#### 5.2. Transient Protection Techniques on WECS

#### 5.3. Transient Protection of Wind Turbine Blade from Lightning

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions and Predictive Validity of Research

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

Simulation Parameters of the DFIG | |

Rated Power | 4 kW |

Stator resistance | ${R}_{S}=1.2\text{}\mathsf{\Omega}$ |

Rotor resistance | ${R}_{r}=1.8\text{}\mathsf{\Omega}$ |

Stator inductance | ${L}_{S}=0.1554\text{}\mathrm{H}$ |

Rotor inductance | ${L}_{r}=0.1558\text{}\mathrm{H}$ |

Mutual inductance | ${L}_{m}=0.15\text{}\mathrm{H}$ |

Rated voltage | ${V}_{S}=\frac{220}{380}\text{}\mathrm{V}$ |

Number of pole pairs | $P=2$ |

Rated speed | $N=1440\text{}\mathrm{rpm}$ |

Friction coefficient | $fDFIG=0.00\text{}\mathrm{N}\xb7\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$ |

Moment of inertia | $J=0.2\text{}\mathrm{kg}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

Slip | $g=0.015$ |

Parameters of the emulated wind turbines | |

Rated Power | 10 kW |

Number of pole pairs | $P=3$ |

Blade diameter | $R=3\text{}\mathrm{m}$ |

Gain | $G=3.9$ |

Moment of inertia | $Jt=0.00065\text{}\mathrm{kg}\xb7{\mathrm{m}}^{2}$ |

Friction coefficient | $ft=0.017\text{}\mathrm{N}\xb7\mathrm{m}/\mathrm{s}$ |

Air density | $\rho =1.22\text{}\mathrm{kg}/{\mathrm{m}}^{3}$ |

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**Figure 6.**Transient model performance during disruption of a short-line fault using the SF

_{6}test circuit breaker (BRK).

**Figure 9.**Example of measurement results illustrating various regime times of the transient waveform [49].

**Figure 11.**Unstable case of the critical eigenvalue as it rises [56].

**Figure 12.**Fault clearing in the unstable case, with damping evolution of the critical oscillatory mode [56].

**Figure 14.**Feed-forward transient compensation (FFTC) structural scheme for DFIG with additional computation (in red) for FFTC implementation. RSC, rotor-side converter.

**Figure 16.**Variable-band vector-based hysteresis current regulator (VBHCR) employed in RSC control structure representation.

**Table 1.**Results of the transient stability of two-mass, three-mass and six-mass models (ignoring all types of damping) [52]. S, steady; U, unsteady.

Induction Generator Power (MW) | 1LG Fault | 2LS Fault | 2LG Fault | 3LG Fault | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | |

50 | S | S | S | S | S | S | U | U | U | U | U | U |

44 | S | S | S | S | S | S | U | U | U | U | U | U |

43 | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | U | U | U |

40 | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | U | U | U |

39 | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S |

**Table 2.**Results of the transient stability of two-mass, three-mass and six-mass models (considering all types of damping) [52].

Induction Generator Power (MW) | 1LG Fault | 2LS Fault | 2LG Fault | 3LG Fault | ||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | 2M | 3M | 6M | |

50 | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S | S |

**Table 3.**Transient stability evaluations techniques in various WECS applications. IISG, inverter interface synchronous generator.

No | Subject | Technique/Concept | WECS Part | Ref. |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Transient Analysis | Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) | DFIG | [61] |

2 | Transient Stability Index (TSI) | DFIG | [6] | |

3 | Transient Security Assessment Tool (TSAT) | DFIG | [51] | |

4 | Critical Clearing Time (CCT) | DFIG | [7] | |

5 | Eigen Value Tracking | FSWT | [58] | |

6 | Runge–Kutta Method | Induction Generator (IG) | [50] | |

7 | Equal Area Criterion (EAC) Theory | IISG | [45] | |

8 | Extended Equal Area Criterion Theory (EEAC) | PMSG | [46] | |

9 | Space Phasor and Asymmetry Phasor Approximation | DFIG | [44] | |

Modelling Methodologies | ||||

10 | Two-Masses or Three Mass | Windmill | [52] | |

11 | Six-Mass Drive Train Model | Windmill | [33] | |

12 | Wound Rotor Asynchronous Machine | DFIG | [22] | |

13 | Controlled Current Source | PMSG | [26] | |

14 | $\pi $ or T Network Models | Transmission lines | [22] | |

15 | IGBT Switches with Parasitic Capacitance | Converter | [101] | |

16 | $S{F}_{6}$ Cassie’s/Mayr’s Model | Circuit breaker | [35] |

**Table 4.**Summary of various control/protection techniques for mitigating and managing transient faults. FLC, fuzzy logic controller; EMF, electromotive force; WPT, wavelet packet transform; DGU, distributed generation unit; HVDC, high-voltage direct current.

Subject | Remedy Approach | Concept | Generator | Ref. No. |
---|---|---|---|---|

Control Scheme | Conventional Vector a-b-c-d-q Control | DSP/Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) | DFIG/PMSG | [2] |

Variable Band Vector-based Hysteresis Control | Tracking of Errors | DFIG | [96] | |

Novel RSC Vector Control | Stator Flux (d-q) | DFIG | [47] | |

Neural Network Adaptive Controller | Novel Error Transformation | WT | [91] | |

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Fly-wheel Controller | Fly-wheel Storage | DFIG | [73] | |

Modal Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC) | SPWM | Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) | [80] | |

Adaptive Fault-tolerant Controller | Barrier Lyapunov Function | WT | [51] | |

Fault-tolerant Controller | Sliding Mode Observer (SMO) | DFIG | [92] | |

Proportional and Inertial Control | Extended Frequency Response | DFIG | [107] | |

Hybrid (PI/Fuzzy) Controllers | Fuzzy Logic Technique | SCIG | [109] | |

Sliding Mode Guidance Law Controller | Fourier Nonlinear Grey Bernoulli Method | PMSG | [103] | |

Speed Controller | Basic speed control loop with current source converter | PMSG | [88] | |

Passivity-Based Linear Feedback Control (PBLFC) | Passivity Theory/FLC | PMSG | [89] | |

Feed-Forward Transient Compensation | Back EMF and Resonant Regulator | DFIG | [81] | |

Secondary Damping Controller | Wide Area Measurement System (WAM) | DFIG | [19] | |

Predictive Torque Control (PTC) | Matrix Converter | BDFIG | [84] | |

MPPT Control | Transient Load and Bandwidth | PMSG | [83] | |

Bridge-type Fault Current Limiter | Real-Time Hardware in the Loop (RTHIL) | DFIG | [85] | |

Supervisory Controller | Gearbox Elements | All Except SG | [94] | |

Protection Measures | Mechanical Switch Capacitors | Bank of Shunt Capacitors | DFIG | [1] |

Active Power Filtering | RLC | DFIG | [110] | |

Three-Channel Filters | Quantization | Aerodynamics of WTs | [124] | |

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Relays | Phaselet Packet Transform (PPT), WPT, Travelling Wave Fault Locators (TWFL), | DGU Interconnections and HVDC | [121,122] | |

Artificial Intelligent-based relays | ANN and Fuzzy Logic Relays | DGU Interconnections | [39,118] | |

Deep Long Short-Term Memory (DLSTM) | Residual Data-driven Method | Wind Turbines Generally | [123] |

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Abubakar, U.; Mekhilef, S.; Mokhlis, H.; Seyedmahmoudian, M.; Horan, B.; Stojcevski, A.; Bassi, H.; Hosin Rawa, M.J.
Transient Faults in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Analysis, Modelling Methodologies and Remedies. *Energies* **2018**, *11*, 2249.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092249

**AMA Style**

Abubakar U, Mekhilef S, Mokhlis H, Seyedmahmoudian M, Horan B, Stojcevski A, Bassi H, Hosin Rawa MJ.
Transient Faults in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Analysis, Modelling Methodologies and Remedies. *Energies*. 2018; 11(9):2249.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092249

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Abubakar, Ukashatu, Saad Mekhilef, Hazlie Mokhlis, Mehdi Seyedmahmoudian, Ben Horan, Alex Stojcevski, Hussain Bassi, and Muhyaddin Jamal Hosin Rawa.
2018. "Transient Faults in Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Analysis, Modelling Methodologies and Remedies" *Energies* 11, no. 9: 2249.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092249