- freely available
Energies 2018, 11(7), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071823
1.2. Literature Review
2. System Configuration
2.1. Wind Energy Conversion System
2.2. HVDC Link, Battery and Diesel Generator Systems
3. DC Microgrid Control System
3.1. Converter Control System
3.2. Inverter Control System
3.3. Battery Control System
3.3.1. Control System for the Normal Operation
3.3.2. Control System of Fault Operation
3.4. Control System of Load
4. Simulation Results
- t = 2.0 s is the three-phase line to ground-fault starting time.
- The gate signals of the DC grid inverter are shutdown when the grid voltage is less than 0.8 pu.
- The line fault is cleared at t = 2.2 s.
- The gate signals of the inverter are re-started, when the AC-grid voltage is above 0.8 pu.
Conflicts of Interest
|Distributed renewable energy sources|
|High voltage DC|
|Low voltage DC|
|Voltage source converter|
|Doubly-fed induction generator|
|Permanent magnet synchronous generator|
|Battery energy storage system|
|Voltage source inverter|
|Wind turbine blade radius|
|Turbine input torque|
|Rotational speed of the wind turbine|
|Tip speed ratio|
|Electrical rotational speed|
|K||Permanent magnet flux|
|p||Number of pole pairs|
|Rotor slip frequency|
|Base angular frequency|
|Mechanical rotational speed|
|MPPT||Maximum power point tracking|
|PCC||Point of common coupling|
|SOC||State of charge|
|IGBT||Insulated gate bipolar transistor|
|AVR||Automatic voltage regulation|
|Active power reference|
|DC bus voltage|
|Reactive power of wind turbine|
|Reference load voltage|
|Actual load voltage|
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|Protection Method||Detection Scheme||Threshold||Comments|
|Voltage based method||The fault is detected by the voltage, dv/dt.||Depends on the voltage setting values when a fault occurs at the transmission line.||Stable performances against change in the direction of current. |
Appropriate threshold is required.
Cannot provide adequate selectivity.
|Current based method||The fault is detected by the current, di/dt.||Depends on the current setting values when a fault occurs at the transmission line.||Doesn’t require protection audit. |
Appropriate threshold is required.
No systematic method to find the
exact values of fault current limiting.
|Hybrid method||The fault is detected by hybrid electrical quantities.||Depends on the hybrid electric quantities when a fault occurs at the transmission line.||Providing accurate setting for various operating conditions. |
Need to complex methods for threshold setting calculations.
Sensitive to fault resistance.
|Differential method||Differentiate the internal and external faults with current differential.||Depends on the over current of power electronics devices when a fault occurs at the transmission line.||Better sensitivity. |
Requirement to communication link which increase the cost of the implementation.
Dependency on communication.
|Event based method||Detect the fault locally and interconnect with other units to determine the fault.||Threshold setting similar to voltage based, current based, and hybrid methods.||Fault can be identified accurately. |
Isolating fault within 30 ms.
|Loads||(100 kW)||(50 kW)||(20 kW)||(10 kW)|
|Voltage (Conventional method)||±4%||±10%||+25%, −62.5%||+20%, −52%|
|Voltage (Proposed method)||0%||0%||−1.2%,||0%|
|Current (Conventional method)||±4.7%||±10%||+40%, −60%||+20%, −52%|
|Current (Proposed method)||0%||0%||−1.3%||0%|
|Power (Conventional method)||±5%||±20%||±90%||+70%, −80%|
|Power (Proposed method)||0%||0%||1.5%||0%|
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