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Energies 2018, 11(7), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071657

Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
3
State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co., Ltd., Shenyang 116001, China
4
State Grid Dalian Electric Power Co., Ltd., Dalian 116001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract

With the increasing penetration of new and renewable energy, incorporating variable adjustable power elements on the demand side is of particular interest. The utilization of batteries as flexible loads is a hot research topic. Lithium-ion batteries are key components in electric vehicles (EVs) in terms of capital cost, mass and size. They are retired after around 5 years of service, but still retain up to 80% of their nominal capacity. Disposal of waste batteries will become a significant issue for the automotive industry in the years to come. This work proposes the use of the second life of these batteries as flexible loads to participate in the economic power dispatch. The characteristics of second life batteries (SLBs) are varied and diverse, requiring a new optimization strategy for power dispatch at the system level. In this work, SLBs are characterized and their operating curves are obtained analytically for developing an economic power dispatch model involving wind farms and second life batteries. In addition, a dispatch strategy is developed to reduce the dispatch complex brought by the disperse spatial and time distribution of EVs and decrease the system operating cost by introducing incentive and penalty costs in regulating the EV performance. In theory, SLBs are utilized to reduce the peak-valley difference of power loads and to stabilize the power system. Test results based on a ten-unit power system have verified the effectiveness of the proposed dispatch model and the economic benefit of utilizing SLBs as flexible loads in power systems. This work may provide a viable solution to the disposal of waste batteries from EVs and to the stable operation of fluctuating power systems incorporating stochastic renewable energy. View Full-Text
Keywords: economic power dispatch; electric vehicle; flexible load; second life battery; wind power economic power dispatch; electric vehicle; flexible load; second life battery; wind power
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Hu, S.; Sun, H.; Peng, F.; Zhou, W.; Cao, W.; Su, A.; Chen, X.; Sun, M. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads. Energies 2018, 11, 1657.

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