Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads
- A stochastic day-ahead economic power dispatch model with wind farms and SLBFLs at MW levels is developed. This model utilizes batteries retired from EVs as flexible loads for balancing power and also for minimizing the operating cost and environmental emissions.
- The charging and discharging characteristics of SLBs at different temperatures and currents are obtained and analyzed based on actual NASA battery data.
- The opportunity cost is calculated to compare between the reuse and the disposal of SLBs; an economic analysis is carried out to compare the utilization of SLBs and EV first-life batteries as flexible loads; the thermal power generating cost and the peak-valley difference of loads are also compared with the system involving SLBs in the power dispatch.
- This work has proved that SLBs are more economical to be utilized in large quantity for power dispatch. This will have significant economic implications and environmental benefits for both automotive industry and power industry.
2. Second Life Batteries Characteristics Analysis
2.1. Battery Power Output under Different Operating Temperatures and Charging/Discharging Currents
2.2. SLBFLs in Power Dispatch
3. Economic Power Dispatch Model with Wind Farms and SLBFLs
- is the balance constraint;
- is the unequal constraint;
- is the minimum value of the unequal constraint;
- is the maximum value of the unequal constraint.
3.1. Objective Functions
3.2. Constraint Functions
3.3. Stochastic Variables
4. Case Study
- Case 1: the power dispatch with wind farms and without SLBFLs. The spinning reserve confidence degree is 0.9.
- Case 2: the power dispatch with wind farms and SLBFLs at wind power reserve confidence degree of 0.9, 0.95 and 0.98.
- Case 3: the power dispatch with SLBs on supply side and the spinning reserve confidence degree is 0.9.
4.1. The Result Comparison of Case 1 and Case 2 with 0.9 Confidence Degree
4.2. The Result Comparison of Case 2 and Case 3
4.3. The Result Comparison of Case 2 with Different Confidence Degrees
Conflicts of Interest
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|Wind Farm||Installation Capacity (MW)||SLBFL||Installation Capacity (MW)|
|Total Capacity||600||Total Capacity||500|
|Component||Component Percentage||Recycling Rate||Recycle Price ($/kg)|
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Hu, S.; Sun, H.; Peng, F.; Zhou, W.; Cao, W.; Su, A.; Chen, X.; Sun, M. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads. Energies 2018, 11, 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071657
Hu S, Sun H, Peng F, Zhou W, Cao W, Su A, Chen X, Sun M. Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads. Energies. 2018; 11(7):1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071657Chicago/Turabian Style
Hu, Shubo, Hui Sun, Feixiang Peng, Wei Zhou, Wenping Cao, Anlong Su, Xiaodong Chen, and Mingze Sun. 2018. "Optimization Strategy for Economic Power Dispatch Utilizing Retired EV Batteries as Flexible Loads" Energies 11, no. 7: 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/en11071657