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Open AccessArticle

Unit Commitment Towards Decarbonized Network Facing Fixed and Stochastic Resources Applying Water Cycle Optimization

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Faculty of Engineering, Ahram Canadian University(ACU), Giza 12573, Egypt
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Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11517, Egypt
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Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport (AASTMT), Cairo 2033, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1140; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051140
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 29 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
This paper presents a trustworthy unit commitment study to schedule both Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) with conventional power plants to potentially decarbonize the electrical network. The study has employed a system with three IEEE thermal (coal-fired) power plants as dispatchable distributed generators, one wind plant, one solar plant as stochastic distributed generators, and Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) which can work either loads or generators based on their charging schedule. This paper investigates the unit commitment scheduling objective to minimize the Combined Economic Emission Dispatch (CEED). To reduce combined emission costs, integrating more renewable energy resources (RER) and PEVs, there is an essential need to decarbonize the existing system. Decarbonizing the system means reducing the percentage of CO2 emissions. The uncertain behavior of wind and solar energies causes imbalance penalty costs. PEVs are proposed to overcome the intermittent nature of wind and solar energies. It is important to optimally integrate and schedule stochastic resources including the wind and solar energies, and PEVs charge and discharge processes with dispatched resources; the three IEEE thermal (coal-fired) power plants. The Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA) is an efficient and intelligent meta-heuristic technique employed to solve the economically emission dispatch problem for both scheduling dispatchable and stochastic resources. The goal of this study is to obtain the solution for unit commitment to minimize the combined cost function including CO2 emission costs applying the Water Cycle Optimization Algorithm (WCOA). To validate the WCOA technique, the results are compared with the results obtained from applying the Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm, which is considered as a conventional numerical technique, and with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a meta-heuristic technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs); water cycle optimization algorithm (WCOA); quadratic programming; combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs); water cycle optimization algorithm (WCOA); quadratic programming; combined economic emission dispatch (CEED)
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ElAzab, H.-A.I.; Swief, R.A.; El-Amary, N.H.; Temraz, H.K. Unit Commitment Towards Decarbonized Network Facing Fixed and Stochastic Resources Applying Water Cycle Optimization. Energies 2018, 11, 1140.

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