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Energies 2018, 11(4), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11040787

Frequency Response Analysis of a Single-Area Power System with a Modified LFC Model Considering Demand Response and Virtual Inertia

College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
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Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract

The modern electric power system is foreseen to have increased penetration of controllable loads under demand response programs and renewable energy resources coupled with energy storage systems which can provide virtual inertia. In this paper, the conventional model of an electric power system is appended by considering, individually and collaboratively, the role of demand response and virtual inertia for the purpose of frequency analysis and control. Most existing literature on this topic either considers one of these two roles or lacks in providing a general model of power system with demand response and virtual inertia. The proposed model is presented in general form and can include/exclude demand response and/or virtual inertia. Further, power system operator can opt the power shares from conventional, demand response, and virtual inertia loops for frequency regulation and can also evaluate the impact of other parameters such as time delays and frequency deadbands on system frequency response. The mathematical formulation of steady-state values of frequency deviation and power contribution from all resources is provided and validated by simulation results under various scenarios including a case of wind intermittency. View Full-Text
Keywords: load-frequency control; system frequency response; demand response; virtual inertia; virtual synchronous generator; steady-state error load-frequency control; system frequency response; demand response; virtual inertia; virtual synchronous generator; steady-state error
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Saeed Uz Zaman, M.; Bukhari, S.B.A.; Hazazi, K.M.; Haider, Z.M.; Haider, R.; Kim, C.-H. Frequency Response Analysis of a Single-Area Power System with a Modified LFC Model Considering Demand Response and Virtual Inertia. Energies 2018, 11, 787.

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