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The Energy Cost Analysis of Hybrid Systems and Diesel Generators in Powering Selected Base Transceiver Station Locations in Nigeria

Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Campus, Johannesburg, Gauteng 2006, South Africa
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Energies 2018, 11(3), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11030687
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
As more locations gain access to telecommunication, there is a growing demand to provide energy in a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly manner while effectively addressing growing energy needs. Erratic power supply and rising operation costs (OPEX) in Nigeria have increased the need to harness local renewable energy sources. Thus, identifying the right generator schedule with the renewable system to reduce OPEX is a priority for operators and vendors. This study evaluates the energy costs of hybrid systems with different generator schedules in powering base transceiver stations in Nigeria using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER). A load range of 4 kW to 8 kW was considered using: (i) an optimised generator schedule; (ii) forced-on generator schedule and (iii) the generator-only schedule. The results showed an optimal LCOE range between averages of USD 0.156/kWh to 0.172/kWh for the 8 kW load. The percent energy contribution by generator ranges from 52.80% to 60.90%, and by the solar PV system, 39.10% to 47.20%. Excess energy ranges from 0.03% to 14.98%. The optimised generator schedule has the highest solar PV penetration of 56.8%. The OPEX savings on fuel ranges from 41.68% to 47% for the different load schedules and carbon emission savings of 4222 kg to 31,428.36 kg. The simulation results shows that powering base stations using the optimised hybrid system schedule would be a better option for the telecom industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: diesel generator; hybrid power system; levelised cost of energy (LCOE); homer pro diesel generator; hybrid power system; levelised cost of energy (LCOE); homer pro
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Oviroh, P.O.; Jen, T.-C. The Energy Cost Analysis of Hybrid Systems and Diesel Generators in Powering Selected Base Transceiver Station Locations in Nigeria. Energies 2018, 11, 687.

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